Strategies and Collaborations for Management of Coastal Areas

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
  • Swarnam Palanivel
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan


The coastal area is the dynamic interface between the land and the sea and may extend inland and seaward to a variable extent, depending upon the different deciding factors. These areas are being modified by human activities, and coastal ecosystems are under severe pressure from human exploitation. The condition is also exaggerated by climate change. Different coastal countries have devised and implemented various programmes in the past to deal with these problems with varying success. Therefore a comprehensive, integrated framework for policy planning and coastal management, called integrated coastal zone management (ICAM), has become imperative. The overall goal of ICAM programme is to ensure sustainable use of coastal natural resources and conservation of coastal ecosystems. This chapter deals with various steps involved in the planning process of ICAM, legal and institutional framework, collaboration at different levels, and underlying principles. The analysis of different situations and requirements of coastal countries supports the view that participatory coastal area development provides the best option, but involvement of local government and community accountability in coastal management will help to make efforts more effective and sustainable.


Coastal planning Framework Integrated coastal area management Community participation 


  1. Beanlands GE (1985) Basic approaches to EIA. In: Proceedings of the Caribbean Seminar on Environmental Impact Assessment. Caribbean Conservation Association, pp 64–81Google Scholar
  2. Boelaert-Suominen S, Cullinan C (1994) Legal and institutional aspects of integrated coastal area management in national legislation. FAO, Rome, p 118Google Scholar
  3. Burbridge PR (1987) Economic considerations in management of coastal resources. In: CAMP Network Newsletter, May 1987, pp 2–3Google Scholar
  4. Burbridge PR, Maragos JE (1985) Analysis of environmental assessment and coastal resources management needs (Indonesia). Report of the International Institute for Environment and Development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. Caddy JF (1990) Enclosed and semi-enclosed seas: principal issues and future actions. UN/FAO, Fishery Resources and Environment Division, Informal paper, 5pGoogle Scholar
  6. Chua TE (1986) Managing ASEAN coastal resources. Tropical coastal area management, ICLARM, Manila. 1(1):8–10Google Scholar
  7. Clark JR (1991) The status of integrated coastal zone management: a global assessment. CAMPNET, University of Miami/RSMAS, Miami, 118pGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark JR (1992a) Carrying capacity and tourism in coastal and marine areas. Parks Magazine 2(3):13–17Google Scholar
  9. Clark JR (1992b) Integrated management of coastal zones. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 327. Rome, Italy, 167p. ch2
  10. Clark JR, Banta JS Zinn JM (1980) Coastal environmental management. Fed. Ins. Admin. FLA-4, 161 pGoogle Scholar
  11. COS (2009) Pacific ocean synthesis: scientific limited literature review of coastal and ocean threats, impacts. Center for Ocean Solutions. The Woods Center for Environment, Stanford UniversityGoogle Scholar
  12. FAO (1992) Integrated management of coastal zones. FAO Fisheries technical paper 327. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Scholar
  13. FAO (1998) Integrated coastal area management and agriculture, forestry and fisheries. FAO guidelines, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Scholar
  14. Giosan L, Syvitski JPM, Constantinescu S, Day J (2014) Protect the world’s deltas. Nature 516:31–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hayes MO (1985) Beach erosion. In: Clark J (ed) Coastal resources management: development case studies, Coastal Management Pub. No. 3, RPI and National Park Service, pp 67–200Google Scholar
  16. Ibe (1986) Harbour development related erosion at Victoria Island, Lagos. In: Proceedings of the first international conference on geomorphology, Manchester, UK: 15–21 September 1985, International Geomorphology, Part 1, pp 457–465Google Scholar
  17. ICLARM (1986) Tropical coastal area management newsletter, 1, 1. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  18. IPCC (2007) Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 779–810Google Scholar
  19. IUCN (1990) Caring for the world. A strategy for sustainability. IUCN, Gland. Second Draft, 135 pGoogle Scholar
  20. IUCN/UNEP/WWF (1991) Caring for the earth: a strategy for sustainable living. IUCN/UNEP/WWF, Gland, 228 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Jernelov A, Marinov U (1990) An approach to environmental impact assessment for projects affecting the marine environment. UNEP, Regional Seas Repts and Studies, No. 122, p 37Google Scholar
  22. Mathiews DR (1995) Commons versus open access: the collapse of Canada’s east coast fishery. Ecologist 25:213Google Scholar
  23. NOAA/CZM (1980) Coastal management program for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. NOAA, Office of CZM, Washington, DC, p 16Google Scholar
  24. Olsen SB (1993) Will integrated coastal management programs be sustainable?: the constituency problem. Ocean Coast Manag 21:201–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Olsen SB, Page GG, Ochoa E (2009) The analysis of governance responses to ecosystem change: a handbook for assembling a baseline. LOICZ Reports and Studies no. 34. GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht. Scholar
  26. Paul T, Nishida J (2007) South Asia region, annual review – 2007–08. South Asia Sustainable Development Sector Department. World Bank,
  27. Portmann JE, Biney C, Ibe AC, Zabi S (1989) State of the Marine Environment in the West and Central African Region. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 108Google Scholar
  28. Ram-Bidesi V, Lal PN, Conner N (2011) Economics of coastal zone management in the pacific. IUCN and Suva, Gland, Fiji: IUCN, xiv + 88Google Scholar
  29. Siry HY (2006) Decentralized coastal zone management in Malaysia and Indonesia: a comparative perspective. Coast Manag 34:267–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Snedaker SC, Getter CD (1985) Coastal resources management guidelines. Coastal Management Publication No. 2, NPS/AID Series. Research Planning Institute, Columbia, 205 pGoogle Scholar
  31. Sorensen JC, McCreary ST (1990) Institutional arrangements for management of coastal resources. Coastal Management Publication No. 1, (Rev. ed.) U.S.Nat. Pk. Serv./USAID Series, 194 pGoogle Scholar
  32. UNCED (1993) United Nations conference on environment and development-1992. Agenda 21. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, p 300.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
    • 1
  • Swarnam Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Zoological Survey of India – ANRCPort BlairIndia

Personalised recommendations