Sand Mining and Strategies for Its Management

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
  • Swarnam Palanivel
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan


Sand extraction from beaches and inland dunes and dredging from ocean and river beds have significantly increased in recent decades. Sand is mainly used in construction and often in manufacturing as an abrasive or in concrete. Sand dunes present on shorelines are formed by a combination of wind and waves and stabilized with native dune grass. Dunes protect the coastal areas from the destructive forces of damaging waves and wind. Similarly sand deposits in the river stream and in the estuaries help to maintain the water balance and protect the riparian areas. However, mining of sand from coastal dunes and river bed creates negative consequences in the coastal ecosystems. Most importantly instream sand mining lowers streambed elevation, accelerates erosion, and affects the adjoining groundwater system. Sand mining involving both onshore and offshore sites seriously affects the coastal ecosystem and threatens the survival of several flora and fauna. On the other hand, there is a mounting pressure on the available sand deposits for various purposes. There are three logical approaches to meet the challenge and protect the coastal ecosystem, viz. regulation of use of existing deposits, reclamation of mined sites, and alternative sources of sand. These aspects are discussed in this chapter in detail.


Mining Coastal dunes River bed Regulation and reclamation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Velmurugan Ayyam
    • 1
  • Swarnam Palanivel
    • 1
  • Sivaperuman Chandrakasan
    • 2
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research InstitutePort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Zoological Survey of India – ANRCPort BlairIndia

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