Nutrient Perception and Signaling in Plants
Plants have developed mechanisms to sense the fluctuating availability of nutrients, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, etc. for their adaptation and survival under constantly changing atmospheric and soil conditions. The biological interventions for crop improvement for nutrient use efficiency have long been limited by the lack of adequate understanding of the sensing and signaling of nutrients and the targets for their improvement. Moreover, nutrient fluctuations could contribute to or accentuate the effects of other abiotic stresses such as drought, flood, salt, extreme light, heat, cold, and wind velocity or biotic stresses due to pests and pathogens. The global warming due to increased atmospheric CO2 emissions also affects drought, salt stress, and nutrient status in plants. This chapter highlights several developments in the last two decades that have improved our understanding of the molecular physiology of nutrient sensing, signaling pathways, and their crosstalk, revealing the nature of plant responses toward its survival. We deal with sensing at the levels of roots for a few nutrients and sensing at the level of shoots for oxygen and carbon dioxide and how a balance of all these factors ensures growth and development. The sensing of water and stress environment is covered separately in two chapters.
KeywordsCarbon dioxide Nitrogen Nutrients Oxygen Phosphorus Potassium Sensing Signaling
The work in NR lab was supported by research grants [GGSIPU/DRC/PhD/Adm/2016/1549] and [38(1246)/10/EMRII] from GGS Indraprastha University and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), respectively. DKJ was supported by a fellowship from the Indo-UK Virtual Nitrogen Centre on Nitrogen Efficiency of Whole-cropping Systems (NEWS) BT/IN/UK-VNC/44/NR/2015-16.
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