Nitric Oxide: A Tiny Decoder and Transmitter of Information
Plants are immobile, yet they are considered sentient because of their capacity to sense and respond. Priming, cross-tolerance to stress, and trans-generational traits support their capacity to retain information. Plants respond to external as well as internal cues. Signaling mechanisms are intricate, and redox changes are the hallmark of these. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) contribute to these redox changes. Nitric oxide (NO) is one such gaseous RNS which mainly modifies protein functions by post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. NO is considered a “do it all” molecule. It is produced in plants by oxidative and reductive pathways. Nitrosylation, i.e., addition of NO group to thiols in proteins, is a major protein modification. Several hundreds of nitrosylated proteins and NO-modified transcription factors are identified in plants. The spatial and temporal distribution of these nitrosylated targets suggests nitrosylation to be a global modification contributing to majority of cellular functions and pathways. Some of the nitrosylated proteins are functionally validated to show these as important redox hubs in cellular physiology.
Recently, the ERF VII transcription factor-dependent N-end rule proteolysis pathway has been implicated for NO perception. A NO perceptron concept may enrich and help in integrating NO signaling in different stress conditions. Some of the redox hubs may be vital targets for crop improvement and adaptation to stress in future. Many of the nitrosylated proteins are also modified by other NO modifications like nitration or a related redox modification called glutathionylation suggesting existence of PTM crosstalk, another level of regulation which needs to be deciphered in future.
KeywordsNitric oxide Nitrosylation NO perception Abiotic stress Post-translational modification (PTM)-crosstalk NO sensor Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Glutathionylation
The nitric oxide signaling research work was funded by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), University Grants Commission (UGC), and University of Delhi, Research and Development grant.
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