Advertisement

Strategies to Practice Climate-Smart Agriculture to Improve the Livelihoods Under the Rice-Wheat Cropping System in South Asia

  • Rajan BhattEmail author
  • Ramanjit Kaur
  • Amlan Ghosh
Chapter

Abstract

The rice-wheat cropping sequence (RWCS) is the world’s largest agricultural production system occupying around 12.3 M ha in India, 0.5 M ha in Nepal, 2.2 M ha in Pakistan, and 0.8 M ha in Bangladesh; and around 85% of this area falls in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). It is energy, labor, and capital intensive, favors global warming, and ultimately has a detrimental effect on the natural resources and soil biodiversity. Furthermore, the rice-wheat cropping sequence has a number of sustainability issues, viz., declining land and water productivity, poor soil health, and arising micronutrient deficiency which is an alarming issue. Integrated approaches must be developed for improving the declining livelihoods in the region. The changing climate and its consequences are complicating the situation of the available natural resources, viz., water, soil, atmosphere, etc. Carbon (C) and water footprints need to be identified in the currently practiced rice-wheat cropping sequence for filling the gaps to improve livelihoods by one or other means. Resource conservation technologies (RCTs) partition greater fraction of water from unproductive evaporation to the desired transpiration which is further reflected on the higher grain yields. Transpiration causes a greater inflow of water and nutrients which ultimately increases the grain yield with lesser consumption of irrigation water, which further increases water productivity. There is a need to focus on the issue to sustain the rice-wheat productivity in South Asia. This book chapter is focused on all the strategies to practice climate-smart agriculture for improving livelihoods in South Asia, which include irrigation based on scheduling, precision laser leveling, direct seeded rice (DSR), mechanical transplanting, crop diversification, short-duration crop varieties, and delaying transplanting time, and reevaluate their effect on water and land productivity under divergent soil textural classes under different climatic conditions in South Asia. There is a need to come out with an integrated package for the farmers depending upon their conditions. Delineation of the residual consequence of used RCT on available moisture during the intervening periods is there, as it affects the performance of intervening crops and certainly adds to the livelihood of the farmer. The aim of this chapter is to review different technologies and their impact on land and water productivity and thereby try to come up with some integrated approach for improving livelihoods of farmers of the region. Therefore, scientists must be very careful while advocating any single RCT or a set of RCTs to the farmers with a must consideration of their social, financial, and geological conditions for enhancing both land and water productivity in South Asia.

Keywords

Climate-smart agriculture Rice-wheat cropping sequence South Asia Water productivity 

Abbreviations

AWD

Alternate wetting and drying

CA

Conservation agriculture

CE

Carbon equivalent

CF

Carbon footprint

CH4

Methane

CO

Carbon monoxide

CO2

Carbon dioxide

CSA

Climate-smart agriculture

DSR (ZT)

Direct seeded rice under zero tillage conditions

DSR (CT)

Direct seeded rice under conventional tillage conditions

ET

Evapotranspiration

FIRBs

Furrow-irrigated raised beds

GEU

Gypsum-enriched urea

Gt

Gigatons

IGP

Indo-Gangetic Plain

INPM

Integrated nutrient and pest management

LCC

Leaf color chart

MDG

Millennium development goal

MT (P)

Mechanical transplanting under puddled conditions

MT (ZT)

Mechanical transplanting under zero tillage conditions

MTR

Mechanical transplanting of rice

N2O

Nitrous oxide

NOCU

Neem oil-coated urea

NUE

Nitrogen use efficiency

PAU

Punjab Agricultural University

PGEU

Phosphogypsum-enriched urea

PM

Particulate matter

ppm

Parts per million

PTR

Puddled transplanted rice

RCTs

Resource conservation technologies

RWCS

Rice-wheat cropping sequence

SEU

Sulfur-enriched urea

SOC

Soil organic carbon

SOM

Soil organic matter

SPAD

Soil plant analysis development

SRI

System of rice intensification

SSNM

Soil-specific nutrient management

SSRM

Site-specific residue management

STCR

Soil test crop response

Tg

Teragram

WPI

Irrigation water productivity

ZEU

Zinc-enriched urea

ZT

Zero tillage

References

  1. Aggarwal GC, Sidhu AS, Sekhon NK, Sandhu KS, Sur HS (1995) Puddling and N management effects on crop response in a rice-wheat cropping system. Soil Tillage Res 36:129–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aggarwal PK, Joshi PK, Ingram JSI, Gupta RK (2004) Adapting food systems of the Indo Gangetic plains to global environmental change: key information needs to improve policy formulation. Environ Sci Pol 7:487–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali M, Kaveh M, David W, Ahmad S (2012) Synthesis of system dynamics tools for holistic conceptualization of water resources problems. Water Resour Manag 26:2421–2442.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-012-0024-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2011) The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005. Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Online available at http://nrega.nic.in/netnrega/home.aspx. Accessed on 28 Mar 2011
  5. Arora VK, Jalota SK, Singh KB (2008) Managing water crisis for sustainable crop productivity in Punjab: an overview. J Res (PAU) 45:17–21Google Scholar
  6. Ashagrie Y, Zech W, Guggenberger G, Mamo T (2007) Soil aggregation, and total and particulate organic matter following conversion of native forests to continuous cultivation in Ethiopia. Soil Tillage Res 94:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashoka P, Meena RS, Kumar S, Yadav GS, Layek J (2017) Green nanotechnology is a key for eco-friendly agriculture. J Clean Prod 142:4440–4441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beri V, Sidhu BS, Bahl GS, Bhat AK (1995) Nitrogen and phosphorus transformations as affected by crop residue management practices and their influence on crop yield. Soil Use Manag 11:51–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhatia A, Sasmal S, Jain N, Pathak H, Kumar R, Singh A (2010) Mitigating nitrous oxide emission from soil under conventional and no-tillage in wheat using nitrification inhibitors. Agri Ecosys Environ 136:247–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhatt R (2015) Soil water dynamics and water productivity of rice-wheat system under different establishment methods. PhD thesis submitted to Punjab Agricultural University, LudhianaGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhatt R (2016) Zero tillage for mitigating global warming consequences and improving livelihoods in South Asia. In: Ganpat W, Isaac W-A (eds) Environmental sustainability and climate change adaptation strategies. The University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago, pp 126–161.  https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-1607-1.ch005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhatt R (2017) Zero tillage impacts on soil environment and properties. J Enviro Agri Sci 10:1–19Google Scholar
  13. Bhatt R, Khera KL (2006) Effect of tillage and mode of straw mulch application on soil erosion in the submontaneous tract of Punjab, India. Soil Tillage Res 88:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhatt R, Kukal SS (2014) Resource conservation techniques for mitigating the water scarcity problem in the Punjab, India – a review. Int J Earth Sci Eng 7(1):309–316Google Scholar
  15. Bhatt R, Kukal SS (2015a) Delineating soil moisture dynamics as affected by tillage in wheat, rice and establishment methods during intervening period. J Appl Nat Sci 7(1):364–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhatt R, Kukal SS (2015b) Soil moisture dynamics during intervening period in rice-wheat sequence as affected by different tillage methods at Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Soil Environ 34(1):82–88Google Scholar
  17. Bhatt R, Kukal SS (2015c) Direct seeded rice in South Asia. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Sustainable agriculture reviews, vol 18, pp 217–252. http://www.springer.com/series/8380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhatt R, Kukal SS (2015d) Soil physical environment as affected by double zero tillage in rice-wheat cropping system of North-West India. Asian J Soil Sci 10(1):166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bhatt R, Kukal SS (2017) Tillage and establishment method impacts on land and irrigation water productivity of wheat-rice system in North-west India. Exp Agric 53(2):178–201.  https://doi.org/10.1017/SOO14479716000272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bhatt R, Sharma M (2010) Management of irrigation water through tensiometer in paddy-a case study in the Kapurthala District of Punjab. Paper orally presented and published. In: Proceedings of regional workshop on water availability and Management in Punjab organized at Panjab University, Chandigarh, pp 199–205Google Scholar
  21. Bhatt R, Singh P (2017) Delineating soil macro and micro nutrients in Tarn Taran district of Indian Punjab. J Environ Agric Sci 12:25–34Google Scholar
  22. Bhatt R, Singh P (2018) Evaporation trends on intervening period for different wheat establishments under soils of semi-arid tropics. J Soil Water Conserv 17(1):41–45.  https://doi.org/10.5958/2455-7145.2018.00006.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bhatt R, Khera KL, Arora S (2004) Effect of tillage and mulching on yield of corn in the submontaneous rainfed region of Punjab, India. Inter J Agri Bio 6:1126–1128Google Scholar
  24. Bhatt R, Gill RS, Gill AAS (2014) Concept of soil water movement in relation to variable water potential. Adv Life Sci 4(1):12–16.  https://doi.org/10.5923/j.als.20140401.02CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bhatt R, Kukal SS, Busari MA, Arora S, Yadav M (2016) Sustainability issues on rice-wheat cropping system. Int Soil Water Conserev Res 4:68–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2015.12.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Blengini GA, Busto M (2009) The life cycle of rice: LCA of alternative agri-food chain management systems in Vercelli (Italy). J Environ Manag 90:1512–1522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bockel L (2009) Increasing economic resilience of agriculture sector to climate change. Paper presented to the UNFCCC technical workshop on —Increasing economic resilience to climate change and reducing reliance on vulnerable economic sectors, including through economic diversification. Cairo, Egypt, 28–30 AprilGoogle Scholar
  28. Bouman BAM, Peng S, Castaneda AR, Visperas RM (2007) Yield and water use of irrigated tropical aerobic rice systems. Agric Water Manag 74:87–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brar AS, Mahal SS, Buttar GS, Deol JS (2011) Water productivity, economics and energetics of basmati rice (Oryza sativa)– wheat (Triticum aestivum) under different methods of crop establishment. Indian J Agron 56:317–320Google Scholar
  30. Buragohain S, Sharma B, Nath JD, Gogaoi N, Meena RS, Lal R (2017) Impact of ten years of bio-fertilizer use on soil quality and riceyield on an inceptisol in Assam, India. Soil Res 56:49.  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR17001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Burney JA, Davis SJ, Lobell DB (2010) Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:12052–12057CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chakraborty D, Garg RN, Tomar RK, Singh R, Sharma SK, Singh RK, Trivedi SM, Mital RB, Sharma PK, Kamble KH (2010) Synthetic and organic mulching and nitrogen effect on winter wheat (Tritcum aestivum L.) in a semi-arid environment. Agric Water Manag 97:738–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chan KY, Conyers MK, Li GD, Helyar KR, Poile G, Oats A, Barchia IM (2011) Soil carbon dynamics under different cropping and pasture management in temperate Australia: results of three long term experiments. Soil Res 49:320–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cheng K, Pan G, Smith P, Luo T, Li L, Zheng J, Zhang X, Han X, Yan M et al (2011) Carbon footprint of China’s crop production-an estimation using agro-statistics data over 1993-2007. Agric Ecosyst Environ 142:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Choudhary AK, Suri VK (2014) Integrated nutrient management technology for direct seeded upland rice in NW Himalayas. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 45:777–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Choudhary AK, Suri VK (2018) System of rice intensification in promising rice hybrids in north–western Himalayas: crop and water productivity, quality and economic profitability. J Plant Nutr 41(8):1020–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Corbett J (2008) Carbon footprint. In: Lerner BW, Lerner KL (eds) Climate change: in context, vol 1. Gale, Detroit, pp 162–164Google Scholar
  38. Dadhich RK, Meena RS (2014) Performance of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in response to foliar spray of thiourea and thioglycollic acid under different irrigation levels. Indian J Ecol 41(2):376–378Google Scholar
  39. Dadhich RK, Meena RS, Reager ML, Kansotia BC (2015) Response of bio-regulators to yield and quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czernj. and Cosson) under different irrigation environments. J Appl Nat Sci 7(1):52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dass A, Chandra S, Choudhary AK, Singh G, Sudhishri S (2016a) Influence of field re-ponding pattern and plant spacing on rice root–shoot characteristics, yield, and water productivity of two modern cultivars under SRI management in Indian Mollisols. Paddy Water Environ 14(1):45–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dass A, Shekhawat K, Choudhary AK, Sepat S, Rathore SS, Mahajan G, Chauhan BS (2016b) Weed management in rice using crop-competition – a review. Crop Prot 95:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Datta R, Baraniya D, Wang YF, Kelkar A, Moulick A, Meena RS, Yadav GS, Ceccherini MT, Formanek P (2017a) Multi-function role as nutrient and scavenger off reeradical in soil. Sustain MDPI 9:402.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Datta R, Kelkar A, Baraniya D, Molaei A, Moulick A, Meena RS, Formanek P (2017b) Enzymatic degradation of lignin in soil: a review. Sustain MDPI 9:1163.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su9071163. 1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dhakal Y, Meena RS, De N, Verma SK, Singh A (2015) Growth, yield and nutrient content of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in response to INM in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Bangladesh J Bot 44(3):479–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dhakal Y, Meena RS, Kumar S (2016) Effect of INM on nodulation, yield, quality and available nutrient status in soil after harvest of green gram. Legum Res 39(4):590–594Google Scholar
  46. Dhillion BS, Kataria P, Dhillon PK (2010) National food security Vis-à-Vis sustainability of agriculture in high crop productivity regions. Curr Sci 98:33–36Google Scholar
  47. Dobermann A, Fairhurst TH (2002) Rice straw management. Better Crops Int 16:7–9Google Scholar
  48. Dubey A, Lal R (2009) Carbon footprint and sustainability of agricultural production systems in Punjab, India, and Ohio, USA. J Crop Improv 23:332–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fix J, Tynan S (2011) Carbon footprint analysis for wood & agricultural residue sources of pulp- Final Report. Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development Environmental Stewardship Division, Edmonton, Alberta, T6H 5T6Google Scholar
  50. Gan Y, Liang BC, Hamel C, Cutforth H, Wang H (2011) Strategies for reducing the carbon footprint of field crops for semiarid areas. Agron Sustain Dev 31:643–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gathala MK, Kumar V, Sharma PC, Yashpal S, Saharawat JHC, Singh M, Kumar A, Jat ML, Humphreys E, Sharma DK, Sheetal-Sharma, Ladha JK (2014) Reprint of optimizing intensive cereal-based cropping systems addressing current and future drivers of agricultural change in the Northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 187:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gogoi N, Baruah KK, Meena RS (2018) Grain legumes: impact on soil health and agroecosystem. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0253-4_16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. GOI (2016) State of Indian Agriculture. Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare Directorate of Economics and Statistics New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  54. Grace PR, Jain MC, Harrington L, Robertson GP (2003) Long-term sustainability of the tropical and subtropical rice-wheat system, an environmental perspective. In: Ladha JK et al (eds) Improving the productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat systems, issues and impact, ASA Special Publication 65. ASA, Madison, pp 27–43Google Scholar
  55. Hillier J, Hawes C, Squire G, Hilton A, Wale S, Smith P (2009) The carbon footprints of food crop production. Int J Agric Sustain 7:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hira GS (2009) Water management in northern states and the food security of India. J Crop Improv 23:136–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hira GS, Jalota SK, Arora VK (2004) Efficient Management of Water Resources for sustainable cropping in Punjab. Research Bulletin. Department of Soils, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, p 20Google Scholar
  58. Hoekstra A, Chapagain A (2006) Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water Resour Manag 21:35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Houghton J, Meira Pilho LG, Callander BA, Harris N, Kattonberg A, Maskeel K (eds) (1996) Climate change 1995: the science of climatic change IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 572 ppGoogle Scholar
  60. Humphreys E, Kukal SS, Christen EW, Hira GS, Singh B, Sudhir-Yadav, Sharma RK (2010) Halting the groundwater decline in North-West India-which crop technologies will be winners? Adv Agron 109:156–199.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(10)09005-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. IPCC (2006) IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, volume 4: agriculture, forestry and other land use. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Paris. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/vol4.htmGoogle Scholar
  62. IPCC (2007a) Summary for policymakers. In: Solomon D, Qin M, Pereira MZLS, Cordery I, Iacovides I (eds) Coping with water scarcity, Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 58. Unesco, ParisGoogle Scholar
  63. IPCC (2007b) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fourth annual assessment Report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 996Google Scholar
  64. IPCC (2007c) The physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  65. Jalota SK, Arora VK (2002) Model-based assessment of water balance components under different cropping systems in north-west India. Agric Water Manag 57:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jalota SK, Khera R, Arora VK, Beri V (2007) Benefits of straw mulching in crop production: a review. J Res Punjab Agric Univ 44:104–107Google Scholar
  67. Jalota SK, Singh KB, Chahal GBS, Gupta RK, Chakraborty S, Sood A, Ray SS, Panigraphy S (2009) Integrating effect of transplanting date, cultivar and irrigation on yield, water saving and water productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Indian Punjab: Field and simulation study. Agric Water Manag 96:1096–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jat ML, Singh S, Rai HK, Chhokar RS, Sharma SK, Gupta RK (2005) Furrow irrigated raised bed (FIRB) planting technique for diversification of rice-wheat system in Indo-Gangetic Plains. Proc Japan Assoc Int Collab Agric Forest 28:25–42Google Scholar
  69. Jat ML, Gathala MK, Ladha JK, Saharawat YS, Jat AS, Kumar V, Sharma SK, Kumar V, Gupta RK (2009) Evaluation of precision land levelling and double zero-till systems in the rice-wheat rotation, water use, productivity, profitability and soil physical properties. Soil Tillage Res 105:112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jat RK, Sapkota TB, Singh RG, Jat ML, Kumar M, Gupta RK (2014) Seven years of conservation agriculture in a rice-wheat rotation of eastern Gangetic Plains of South Asia: yield trends and economic profitability. Field Crop Res 164:199–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jeffrey PM, Singh PN, Wesley WW, Daniel SM, Jon FW, William RO, Philip H, Roy R, Blaine RH (2012) No-tillage and high-residue practices reduce soil water evaporation. Calif Agric 4:55–61Google Scholar
  72. Kakraliya SK, Singh U, Bohra A, Choudhary KK, Kumar S, Meena RS, Jat ML (2018) Nitrogen and legumes: a meta-analysis. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0253-4_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kaur R, Singh K, Deol JS, Dass A, Choudhary AK (2015) Possibilities of improving performance of direct seeded rice using plant growth regulators: a review. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect B Bio Sci 85(04):909–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kirkegaard JA, Hunt JR (2010) Increasing productivity by matching farming system management and genotype in water-limited environments. J Exp Bot 61:4129–4143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kukal SS, Aggarwal GC (2003a) Puddling depth and intensity effects in rice-wheat system on a sandy loam soil. I. Development of subsurface compaction. Soil Tillage Res 72:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kukal SS, Aggarwal GC (2003b) Puddling depth and intensity effects in rice-wheat system on a sandy loam soil II. Water use and crop performance. Soil Tillage Res 74:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kukal SS, Hira GS, Sidhu AS (2005) Soil matric potential-based irrigation scheduling to rice (Oryza sativa). Irrig Sci 23:153–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kukal SS, Singh Y, Yadav S, Humphreys E, Kaur A, Thaman S (2008) Why grain yield of transplanted rice on permanent raised beds declines with time? Soil Till Res 99:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kukal SS, Yadav S, Kaur A, Singh Y (2009) Performance of rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) on raised beds in farmers’ scale field plots. Indain J Agric Sci 79:75–78Google Scholar
  80. Kukal SS, Bhatt R, Gupta N, Singh MC (2014) Effect of crop establishment methods on rice (oryza sativa) performance and irrigation water productivity in sandy-loam soil. Agric Res J PAU Ludhiana 51(3 & 4):326–328Google Scholar
  81. Kumar K, Goh KM (2000) Crop residue management, effects on soil quality, soil nitrogen dynamics, crop yield, and nitrogen recovery. Adv Agron 68:197–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kumar S, Meena RS, Pandey A, Seema (2017a) Soil acidity management and an economics response of lime and sulfur on sesame in an alley cropping system. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6(3):2566–2573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kumar S, Meena RS, Yadav GS, Pandey A (2017b) Response of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) to sulphur and lime application under soil acidity. Int J Plant Soil Sci 14(4):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kumar S, Meena RS, Bohra JS (2018a) Interactive effect of sowing dates and nutrient sources on dry matter accumulation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). J Oilseed Brassica 9(1):72–76Google Scholar
  85. Kumar S, Meena RS, Lal R, Yadav GS, Mitran T, Meena BL, Dotaniya ML, EL-Sabagh A (2018b) Role of legumes in soil carbon sequestration. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0253-4_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kuotsu K, Das L, Munda AR, Ghosh G, Ngachan S (2014) Land forming and tillage effects on soil properties and productivity of rainfed groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)-rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) cropping system in northeastern India. Soil Tillage Res 142:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ladha JK, Dawe D, Pathak H, Padre AT, Yadav RL, Bijay S, Yadvinder-Singh, Singh Y, Singh P, Kundu AL, Sakal R, Ram N, Regmi AP, Gami SK, Bhandari AL, Amin R, Yadav CR, Bhattarai EM, Das S, Aggarwal HP, Gupta RK, Hobbs PR (2003) How extensive are yield declines in long-term rice-wheat experiments in Asia? Field Crop Res 81:159–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304(5677):1623–1627CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lal R (2010) A dual response of conservation agriculture to climate change: reducing CO2 emissions and improving the soil carbon sink. Opening address, European congress on conservation agriculture, Madrid. http://www.marm.gob.es/es/ministerio/servicios-generales/publicaciones/Opening_address_tcm7-158494.pdf
  90. Layek J, Das A, Mitran T, Nath C, Meena RS, Singh GS, Shivakumar BG, Kumar S, Lal R (2018) Cereal+legume intercropping: an option for improving productivity. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0253-4_11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Leach AM, Galloway JN, Bleeker A, Erisman JW, Kohn R, Kitzes J (2012) A nitrogen footprint model to help consumers understand their role in nitrogen losses to the environment. Environ Dev 1(1):40–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lemieux PM, Lutes CC, Santoianni DA (2004) Emissions of organic air toxics from open burning: a comprehensive review. Prog Energy Combust Sci 30:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lobell DB, Burke MB, Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea MD, Falcon WP, Naylor R (2008) Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Science 319(5863):607–610CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. López-Moreno JIJ, Pomeroy W, Revuelto J, Vicente-Serrano SM (2012) Response of snow processes to climate change: spatial variability in a small basin in the Spanish Pyrenees. Hydrol Process 27:2637.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Madsen ST (2013) State, society and the environment in South Asia. Routledge, SAARC country profiles, 2014, pp 1–35. http://saarc-sec.org/india/Ltd
  96. Maraseni TN, Cockfield G (2011) Does the adoption of zero tillage reduce greenhouse gas emissions? An assessment for the grains industry in Australia. Agric Syst 104:451–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Meena RS, Lal R (2018) Legumes and sustainable use of soils. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0253-4_1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Meena H, Meena RS (2017) Assessment of sowing environments and bio-regulators as adaptation choice for clusterbean productivity in response to current climatic scenario. Bangladesh J Bot 46(1):241–244Google Scholar
  99. Meena RS, Yadav RS (2014) Phonological performance of groundnut varieties under sowing environments in hyper arid zone of Rajasthan, India. J Appl Nat Sci 6(2):344–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Meena RS, Yadav RS (2015) Yield and profitability of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) as influenced by sowing dates and nutrient levels with different varieties. Legum Res 38(6):791–797Google Scholar
  101. Meena RS, Yadav RS, Meena VS (2014) Response of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) varieties to sowing dates and NP fertilizers under Western Dry Zone of India. Bangladesh J Bot 43(2):169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Meena RS, Dhakal Y, Bohra JS, Singh SP, Singh MK, Sanodiya P (2015a) Influence of bioinorganic combinations on yield, quality and economics of Mungbean. Am J Exp Agric 8(3):159–166Google Scholar
  103. Meena RS, Meena VS, Meena SK, Verma JP (2015b) The needs of healthy soils for a healthy world. J Clean Prod 102:560–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Meena RS, Meena VS, Meena SK, Verma JP (2015c) Towards the plant stress mitigate the agricultural productivity: a book review. J Clean Prod 102:552–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Meena RS, Yadav RS, Meena H, Kumar S, Meena YK, Singh A (2015d) Towards the current need to enhance legume productivity and soil sustainability worldwide: a book review. J Clean Prod 104:513–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Meena RS, Yadav RS, Reager ML, De N, Meena VS, Verma JP, Verma SK, Kansotia BC (2015e) Temperature use efficiency and yield of groundnut varieties in response to sowing dates and fertility levels in Western Dry Zone of India. Am J Exp Agric 7(3):170–177Google Scholar
  107. Meena H, Meena RS, Singh B, Kumar S (2016a) Response of bio-regulators to morphology and yield of clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.] under different sowing environments. J Appl Nat Sci 8(2):715–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Meena RS, Bohra JS, Singh SP, Meena VS, Verma JP, Verma SK, Shiiag SK (2016b) Towards the prime response of manure to enhance nutrient use efficiency and soil sustainability a current need: a book review. J Clean Prod 112:1258–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Meena RS, Gogaoi N, Kumar S (2017a) Alarming issues on agricultural crop production and environmental stresses. J Clean Prod 142:3357–3359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Meena RS, Kumar S, Pandey A (2017b) Response of sulfur and lime levels on productivity, nutrient content and uptake of sesame under guava (Psidium guajava L.) based agri-horti system in an acidic soil of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. J Crop Weed 13(2):222–227Google Scholar
  111. Meena RS, Meena PD, Yadav GS, Yadav SS (2017c) Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms, principles and application of microphos technology. J Clean Prod 145:157–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Meena H, Meena RS, Lal R, Singh GS, Mitran T, Layek J, Patil SB, Kumar S, Verma T (2018a) Response of sowing dates and bio regulators on yield of clusterbean under current climate in alley cropping system in eastern U.P., India. Legum Res 41(4):563–571Google Scholar
  113. Meena RS, Kumar V, Yadav GS, Mitran T (2018b) Response and interaction of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soybean rhizosphere: a review. Plant Growth Regul 84:207–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Meena BL, Fagodiya RK, Prajapat K, Dotaniya ML, Kaledhonkar MJ, Sharma PC, Meena RS, Mitran T, Kumar S (2018c) Legume green manuring: an option for soil sustainability. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0253-4_12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Mitran T, Meena RS, Lal R, Layek J, Kumar S, Datta R (2018) Role of soil phosphorus on legume production. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0253-4_15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Olk DC, Cassman KG, Randall EW, Kinchesh P, Sanger LJ, Anderson JM (1996) Changes in chemical properties of organic matter with intensified rice cropping in tropical lowland soil. Eur J Soil Sci 47:293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Paccard CG, Chiquinquira H, Ignacio MS, Pérez J, León P, González P, Espejo R (2015) Soil-water relationships in the upper soil layer in a Mediterranean Palexerult as affected by no-tillage under excess water conditions – influence on crop yield. Soil Tillage Res 146:303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Pandirajan T, Solaiappan U, Rubapathi K (2006) A comparative study on the crop establishment study on the crop establishment technologies for the low land rice. Agri Mecha Asia Africa Latin America 37:25–28Google Scholar
  119. Pathak H, Jain N, Bhatia A, Patel J, Aggarwal PK (2005) Carbon footprints of Indian food items. Agric Ecosyst Environ 139:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. PAU (2018) Package of practices for Kharif 2018. Punjab Agricultural University, LudhianaGoogle Scholar
  121. Paul J, Choudhary AK, Suri VK, Sharma AK, Kumar V, Shobhna (2014) Bio–resource nutrient recycling and its relationship with bio–fertility indicators of soil health and nutrient dynamics in rice wheat cropping system. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 45:912–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Pfister S, Boulay AM, Berger M, Hadjikakou M, Motoshita M, Hess T, Ridoutt B, Weinzettel J, Scherer DP (2017) Understanding the LCA and ISO water footprint: a response to Hoekstra (2016) “A critique on the water-scarcity weighted water footprint in LCA”. Ecol Indic 72:352–359CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Pooniya V, Choudhary AK, Swarnalaxami K (2017) High-value crops’ imbedded intensive cropping systems for enhanced productivity, resource-use-efficiency, energetics and soil-health in Indo-Gangetic Plains. Proc Natl Acad Sci India Sect B Bio Sci 87(4):1073–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Pooniya V, Choudhary AK, Bana RS, Swarnalaxami K, Pankaj RDS, Puniya MM (2018) Influence of summer legume residue-recycling and varietal diversification on productivity, energetics and nutrient dynamics in basmati rice–wheat cropping system of western Indo-Gangetic Plains. J Plant Nutr 41:1491.  https://doi.org/10.1080/011904167.2018.1458868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Porter JR, Xie L, Challinor AJ, Cochrane K, Howden SM, Iqbal MM, Lobell DB, Travasso MI (2014) Food security and food production systems. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ, Mach KJ, Mastrandrea MD, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York, pp 485–533Google Scholar
  126. Prasad R (2005) Rice–wheat cropping system. Adv Agron 86:255–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rahman MA, Chikushi J, Safizzaman M, Lauren JG (2005) Rice straw mulching and nitrogen response of no-till wheat following rice in Bangladesh. Field Crop Res 91:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Raj SK, Nimmy J, Mathew R, Leenakumary S (2013) Influence of stand establishment techniques on yield and economics of rice cultivation in Kuttanad. Int J Sci Res Pub 3(4):1–6Google Scholar
  129. Rajaniemi M, Mikkola H, Ahokas J (2011) Greenhouse gas emissions from oats, barley, wheat and rye production. Agron Res Biosyst Eng Spec Issue 1:189–195Google Scholar
  130. Ram K, Meena RS (2014) Evaluation of pearl millet and mungbean intercropping systems in Arid Region of Rajasthan (India). Bangladesh J Bot 43(3):367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rana M, Mamun AA, Zahan A, Ahmed N, Mridha AJ (2014) Effect of planting methods on the yield and yield attributes of short duration aman rice. Am J Plant Sci 5:251–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Raupach MR, Gregg M, Philippe CCLQ, Josep GC, Gernot K, Christopher BF (2007) Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(24):10288–10293CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Rees WE (1992) Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: what urban economics leaves out? Environ Urban 4(2):121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Robertson GP, Dale VH, Doering OC, Hamburg SP, Melillo JM, Wander MM, Parton WJ, Adler PR, Barney JN, Cruse RM, Duke CS¸ Fearnside PM, Follett RF, Gibbs HK, Goldemberg J, Mladenoff DJ, Ojima D, Palmer MW, Sharpley A, Wallace L, Weathers KC, Wiens JA, Wilhelm WW (2008). Sustainable biofuels redux. Science 322:49–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Röös E, Tjärnemo H (2011) Challenges of carbon labelling of food products: a consumer research perspective. Brit Food J 11:982–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sanghera GS, Bhatt R (2018) Water stress response of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) clones/varieties for sugar yield and components traits. J Agric Res (Accepted) 9(3):488–494Google Scholar
  137. Sanghera GS, Singh H, Bhatt R (2018) Impact of water stress on manifestation of cane yield components and physiological traits in sugarcane (Saccharum Spp. hybrid complex). Int J Agric Sci 10(5):5284–5290Google Scholar
  138. Sarkar A, Yadav RL, Gangwar B, Bhatia PC (1999) Crop residues in India. Technical Bulletin, Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Research, Modipuram, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  139. Scheehle EA, Kruger D (2006) Global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Energy J 22:33–44Google Scholar
  140. Sharma PK, Bhushan L, Ladha JK, Naresh RK, Gupta RK, Balasubramanian V, Bouman BAM (2005) Crop-water relations in rice-wheat cropping under different tillage systems and water management practices in a marginally sodic medium textured soil. In: Bouman BAM, Hengsdijk H, Hardy B, Bihdraban B, Toung TP, Ladha JK (eds) Proceedings of the international workshop on water-wise rice production. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, pp 223–235Google Scholar
  141. Shukla PR, Dhar S, Mahapatra D (2008) Low-carbon society scenarios for India. Clim Policy 8(Suppl. 1):156–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Siddique KHM, Tennant D, Perry MW, Belford RK (1990) Water use and water use efficiency of old and modern wheat cultivars in a Mediterranean-type environment. Aust J Agric Res 41:431–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Sidhu BS, Beri V (1989) Effect of crop residue management on the yields of different crops and on soil properties. Biol Wastes 27:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Sidhu HS, Singh M, Blackwell J, Humphreys E, Bector V, Singh Y, Singh M, Singh S (2008) Development of the Happy Seeder for direct drilling into combine harvested rice. In: Humphreys E, Roth CH (eds) Permanent beds and rice-residue management for rice-wheat systems in the indo-gangetic plain, ACIAR Proceedings 159–170. Australian Centre for International Agricultural, Canberra. Research http://www.aciar.gov.au/publication/term/18Google Scholar
  145. Sihag SK, Singh MK, Meena RS, Naga S, Bahadur SR, Gaurav YRS (2015) Influences of spacing on growth and yield potential of dry direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Ecoscan 9(1–2):517–519Google Scholar
  146. Singh A (2016) Managing the water resources problems of irrigated agriculture through geospatial techniques: an overview. Agric Water Manag 174:2–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Singh RB, Paroda RS (1994) Sustainability and productivity of rice wheat systems in Asia Pacific region: research and technology development needs. In: Paroda RS, Woodhead T, Singh RB (eds) Sustainability of rice–wheat production systems in Asia. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, pp 1–35Google Scholar
  148. Singh S, Sharma SN, Prasad R (2001) The effect of seeding and tillage methods on productivity of rice-wheat cropping system. Soil Tillage Res 61(3):125–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Singh Y, Singh B, Timsina J (2005) Crop residue management for nutrient cycling and improving soil productivity in rice-based cropping systems in the tropics. Adv Agron 85:269–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Singh Y, Brar NK, Humphreys E, Bijay S, Timsina J (2008) Yield and nitrogen use efficiency of permanent bed rice-wheat systems in northwest India, effect of N fertilization, mulching and crop establishment method. In: Humphreys E, Roth CH (eds) Permanent beds and rice-residue management for rice-wheat systems in the Indo-Gangetic plain, ACIAR Proceedings No. 127. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, pp 62–78. www.aciar.gov.au/publication/term/18Google Scholar
  151. Singh Y, Singh M, Sidhu HS, Khanna PK, Kapoor S, Jain AK, Singh AK, Sidhu SK, Singh SK, Singh A, Chaudhary DP, Minhas PS (2010) Options for effective utilization of crop residues, Research Bulletin No 3/2010. Director of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. 32 ppGoogle Scholar
  152. Singh RK, Bohra JS, Nath T, Singh Y, Singh K (2011a) Integrated assessment of diversification of rice–wheat cropping system in Indo–Gangetic plain. Arch Agron Soil Sci 57:489–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Singh B, Humphreys E, Eberbach PL, Katupitiya A, Yadvinder-Singh, Kukal SS (2011b) Growth, yield and water productivity of zero till wheat as affected by rice straw mulch and irrigation schedule. Field Crop Res 121:209–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Singh SS, Singh AK, Sundaram PK (2014) Agrotechnological options for upscaling agricultural productivity in eastern indo Gangetic Plains under impending climate change situations: a review. J Agri 1(2):55–65Google Scholar
  155. Singh M, Bhullar MS, Chauhan BS (2015a) Influence of tillage, cover cropping, and herbicides on weeds and productivity of dry direct-seeded rice. Soil Till Res 147:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Singh M, Bhullar MS, Chauhan BS (2015b) Seed bank dynamics and emergence pattern of weeds as affected by tillage systems in dry direct-seeded rice. Crop Prot 67:168–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Smith P (2013) How much land-based greenhouse gas mitigation can be achieved without compromising food security and environmental goals? Glob Chang Biol 19:2285–2302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Smith K, Cumby T, Lapworth J, Misselbrook T, Williams A (2008) Natural crusting of slurry storage as an abatement measure for ammonia emissions on dairy farms. Biosyst Eng 97:464–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sofi PA, Baba ZA, Hamid B, Meena RS (2018) Harnessing soil rhizobacteria for improving drought resilience in legumes. In: Meena RS et al (eds) Legumes for soil health and sustainable management. Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0253-4_8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Soni V (2012) Groundwater loss in India and an integrated climate solution. Curr Sci 102(8):1098–1101Google Scholar
  161. Stoorvogel JJ, Smaling EMA (1990) Assessment of soil nutrient depletion in sub-Saharan Africa 1983–2000, Report No. 28. D. L. O. Winand Starring Center for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  162. Sudhir-Yadav, Gill G, Humphreys E, Kukal SS, Walia US (2011) Effect of water management on dry seeded and puddled transplanted rice. Part 1. Crop performance. Field Crop Res 120:112–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2010.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sur HS, Prihar SS, Jalota SK (1981) Effect of rice-wheat and maize-wheat rotations on water transmission and wheat root development in a sandy loam of the Punjab, India. Soil Tillage Res 1:361–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Tenuta M, Beauchamp EG (2003) Nitrous oxide production from granular nitrogen fertilizers applied to a silt loam. Can J Soil Sci 83(5):521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Thomas DSG, Twyman C (2005) Equity and justice in climate change adaptation amongst natural resource-dependant societies. Glob Environ Chang 15:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Timsina J, Connor DJ (2001) Productivity and management of rice-wheat cropping systems, issues and challenges. Field Crop Res 69:93–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Turner AG, Annamalai H (2012) Climate change and the South Asian summer monsoon. Nat Clim Chang 2(8):587–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. UNEP (2008) Annual report. Produced by the UNEP Division of Communications and Public InformationGoogle Scholar
  169. Varma D, Meena RS, Kumar S (2017a) Response of mungbean to fertility and lime levels under soil acidity in an alley cropping system in Vindhyan Region, India. Int J Chem Stu 5(2):384–389Google Scholar
  170. Varma D, Meena RS, Kumar S, Kumar E (2017b) Response of mungbean to NPK and lime under the conditions of Vindhyan Region of Uttar Pradesh. Legum Res 40(3):542–545Google Scholar
  171. Venterea RT, Burger M, Spokas KA (2005) Nitrogen oxide and methane emissions under varying tillage and fertilizer management. J Environ Qual 34:1467–1477CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Verhulst N, Govaerts B, Sayre KD, Sonder K, Romero-Perezgrovas R, Mezzalama M, Dendooven L (2011) Conservation agriculture as a means to mitigate and adapt to climate change, a case study from Mexico. In: Wollenberg L (ed) Designing agricultural mitigation for smallholders in developing countries. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  173. Verma JP, Jaiswal DK, Meena VS, Meena RS (2015a) Current need of organic farming for enhancing sustainable agriculture. J Clean Prod 102:545–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Verma JP, Meena VS, Kumar A, Meena RS (2015b) Issues and challenges about sustainable agriculture production for management of natural resources to sustain soil fertility and health: a book review. J Clean Prod 107:793–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Verma SK, Singh SB, Prasad SK, Meena RN, Meena RS (2015c) Influence of irrigation regimes and weed management practices on water use and nutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Emend. Fiori and Paol.). Bangladesh J Bot 44(3):437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Wallace JS, Gregory PJ (2002) Water resources and their use in food production. Aquat Sci 64:363–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Wanhalinna W (2010) Carbon footprint of bread. University of Helsinki, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  178. West TO, Marland G (2002) Net carbon flux from agricultural ecosystems: methodology for full carbon cycle analyses. Environ Pollut 116:439–444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Wiedmann T, Minx JA (2008) Chapter 1: Definition of carbon footprint. In: Pertsova CC (ed) Ecological economics research trends. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  180. Wright L, Kemp S, Williams I (2011) ‘Carbon foot printing’: towards a universally accepted definition. Carbon Manag 2(1):61–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Yadav GS, Babu S, Meena RS, Debnath C, Saha P, Debbaram C, Datta M (2017a) Effects of godawariphosgold and single supper phosphate on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) productivity, phosphorus uptake, phosphorus use efficiency and economics. Indian J Agric Sci 87(9):1165–1169Google Scholar
  182. Yadav GS, Lal R, Meena RS, Babu S, Das A, Bhomik SN, Datta M, Layak J, Saha P (2017b) Conservation tillage and nutrient management effects on productivity and soil carbon sequestration under double cropping of rice in North Eastern Region of India. Ecol Indic. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X17305617
  183. Yadav GS, Lal R, Meena RS, Datta M, Babu S, Das LJ, Saha P (2017c) Energy budgeting for designing sustainable and environmentally clean/safer cropping systems for rainfed rice fallow lands in India. J Clean Prod 158:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Yadav GS, Das A, Lal R, Babu S, Meena RS, Saha P, Singh R, Datta M (2018a) Energy budget and carbon footprint in a no-till and mulch based rice–mustard cropping system. J Clean Prod 191:144–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Yadav GS, Das A, Lal R, Babu S, Meena RS, Patil SB, Saha P, Datta M (2018b) Conservation tillage and mulching effects on the adaptive capacity of direct-seeded upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) to alleviate weed and moisture stresses in the North Eastern Himalayan Region of India. Arch Agron Soil Sci 64:1254.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2018.1423555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zhang D, Zhang WF (2016) Low carbon agriculture and a review of calculation methods for crop production carbon footprint accounting. Res Sci 38:1395–1405Google Scholar
  187. Zheng L, Wenliang W, Yongping W, Hu K (2015) Effects of straw return and regional factors on spatio-temporal variability of soil organic matter in a high-yielding area of northern China. Soil Tillage Res 145:78–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scientist (Soil Science), Regional Research Station, KapurthalaPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Division of AgronomyICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Institute of Agricultural ChemistryBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations