Advertisement

Effect of Salinity on Soil Nutrients and Plant Health

  • Ankita Bidalia
  • Krati Vikram
  • Gupta Yamal
  • K. S. Rao
Chapter

Abstract

Salinity is one of the most studied abiotic factors affecting soil and plant health in most of the arid and semiarid ecosystems across the globe. It affects the soil by altering the physical, chemical, and biological properties such as soil pH, bulk density, nutrient imbalance, moisture availability, and microbial diversity. These changes in the soil properties further affect the plant health by creating unfavorable conditions like osmotic stress, ion toxicity, low nutrient bioavailability, altered plant-pathogen interactions, etc. However, in natural conditions, both biotic and abiotic factors interact; therefore, plants have to defend themselves against multiple stresses simultaneously. Remarkably, plants have developed a variety of mechanisms to survive under the stressful condition with an alteration in the different plant processes. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of salinity imbalance soil nutritional and microbial status on plant health and also summarize the appropriate management practices to overcome salinity conditions.

Keywords

Nutrient bioavailability Plant-pathogen interaction Soil management 

References

  1. Ahmad P, Latef AAA, Hashem A, AbdAllah EF, Gucel S, Tran LP (2016) Nitric Oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea. Front Plant Sci 7:347–358PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Karaki GN (2000) Growth, water use efficiency, and sodium and potassium acquisition by tomato cultivars grown under salt stress. J Plant Nutri 23:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen JA, Chambers JL, Stine M (1994) Prospects for increasing the salt tolerance of forest trees: a review. Tree Physiol 14:843–853PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Amtmann A, Troufflard S, Armengaud P (2008) The effect of potassium nutrition on pest and disease resistance in plants. Physiol Plant 133:682–691PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Anschütz U, Becker D, Shabala S (2014) Going beyond nutrition: regulation of potassium homoeostasis as a common denominator of plant adaptive responses to environment. Plant Physiol 171:670–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Apse MP, Aharon GS, Snedden WA, Blumwald E (1999) Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiport in Arabidopsis. Science 285:1256–1258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Asfaw E, Suryabhagavan KV, Argaw M (2018) Soil salinity modeling and mapping using remote sensing and GIS: the case of Wonji sugar cane irrigation farm, Ethiopia. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 17:250–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asghar HN, Setia R, Marschner P (2012) Community composition and activity of microbes from saline soils and non-saline soils respond similarly to changes in salinity. Soil Biol Biochem 47:175–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Assaha DVM, Ueda A, Saneoka H, Al-Yahyai R, Yaish MW (2017) The role of Na+ and K+ transporters in salt stress adaptation in glycophytes. Front Plant Physiol 8:509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Awad AS, Edwards DG, Campbell LC (1990) Phosphorus enhancement of salt tolerance of tomato. Crop Sci 30:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bano A, Fatima M (2009) Salt tolerance in Zea mays (L.) following inoculation with Rhizobium and Pseudomonas. Biol Fertil Soils 45:405–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bar-Tal A, Feigenbaum S, Sparks DL (1991) Potassium-salinity interactions in irrigated corn. Irrig Sci 12:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Batra L, Manna MC (2009) Dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass carbon insalt-affected soils of semiarid and arid regions. Arid Land Res Manag 11:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernstein L, Ogata G (1966) Effects of salinity on nodulation, nitrogen fixation, and growth of soybeans and alfalfa. Agronomy 58:201–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bernstein LL, Francois E, Clark RA (1974) Interactive effects of salinity and fertility on yields of grains and vegetables. Agron J 66:412–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bidalia A, Hanief M, Rao KS (2017) Tolerance of Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. seedlings to NaCl salinity. Photosynthetica 55:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Binzel ML, Hess FD, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM (1988) Intracellular compartmentation of ions in salt adapted tobacco cells. Plant Physiol 86:607–614PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Blaker NS, Macdonald JD (1985) Effect of soil salinity on the formation of sporangia and zoospores by three isolates of Phytophthora. Phytopathology 75:270–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blaker NS, MacDonald J (1986) Role of salinity development of Phytopthora root-rot of citrus. Phytopathology 76:970–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bostock RM, Pye MF, Roubtsova TV (2014) Predisposition in plant disease: exploiting the nexus in abiotic and biotic stress perception and response. Annu Rev Phytopathol 52:517–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Botella MA, Cruz C, Martins-Louçao MA, Cerdá A (1993) Nitrate reductase activity in wheat seedlings as affected by NO3/NH4 ratio and salinity. J Plant Physiol 142:531–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Botella MA, Martínez V, Nieves M, Cerdá A (1997) Effect of salinity on the growth and nitrogen uptake by wheat seedlings. J Plant Nutri 20:793–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boyd LA, Ridout C, O’Sullivan DM, Leach JE, Leung H (2013) Plant-pathogen interactions: disease resistance in modern agriculture. Trends Genet 29:233–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Braun Y, Hassidim M, Lerner HR, Reinhold L (1986) Studies on H-Translocating ATPases in plants of varying resistance to salinity. I. Salinity during growth modulates the proton pump in the halophyte Atriplexnum mulariu. Plant Physiol 81:1050–1056PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bray EA (1997) Plant responses to water deficit. Trends Plant Sci 2:48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carillo P, Annunziata MG, Pontecorvo G, Fuggi A, Woodrow P (2011) Salinity stress and salt tolerance. In: Shanker AK, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Abiotic stress in plants-mechanisms and adaptations. InTech, Rijeka, pp 21–38Google Scholar
  28. Champagnol F (1979) Relationships between phosphate nutrition of plants and salt toxicity. Phosphorus Agric 76:35–43Google Scholar
  29. Chaves MM, Flexas J, Pinheiro C (2009) Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Ann Bot 103:551–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chen TH, Murata N (2002) Enhancement of tolerance of abiotic stress by metabolic engineering of betaines and other compatible solutes. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:250–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chinnusamy V, Jagendorf A, Zhu JK (2005) Understanding and improving salt tolerance in plants. Crop Sci 45:437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chowdhury N, Marschner P, Burns RG (2011) Response of microbial activity and community structure to decreasing soil osmotic and matric potential. Plant Soil 344:241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Creda A, Bingham FT, Hoffman GJ (1977) Interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus on sesame. Soil Sci Soc Am J 41:915–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cushman JC, DeRocher EJ, Bohnert HJ (1990) Gene expression during adaptation to salt stress. In: Katterman F (ed) Environmental injury to plants. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 173–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Daami-Remadi M, Souissi A, Oun HB, Mansour M, Nasraoui B (2009) Salinity effects on fusarium wilt severity and tomato growth. Dyn Soil Dyn Plant 3:61–69Google Scholar
  36. Davenport R, James RA, Zakrisson-Plogander A, Tester M, Munns R (2005) Control of sodium transport in durum wheat. Plant Physiol 137:807–818PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Deinlein U, Stephan AB, Horie T, Luo W, Xu G, Schroeder JI (2014) Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms. Trends Plant Sci 19:371–379PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elmer WH (2002) Influence of inoculum density of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cyclaminis and sodium chloride on cyclamen and the development of Fusarium wilt. Plant Dis 86:389–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elmer WH (2003) Local and systemic effects of NaCl on root com- position, rhizobacteria, and Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus. Phytopathology 93:186–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Empadinhas N, da Costa MS (2008) Osmoadaptation mechanisms in prokaryotes: distribution of compatible solutes. Int Microbiol 11:151–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Esmaili E, Kapourchal SA, Malakouti MJ, Homaee M (2008) Interactive effect of salinity and two nitrogen fertilizers on growth and composition of sorghum. Plant Soil Environ 54:537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Flowers TJ, Troke BJ, Yeo AR (1977) The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annu Rev Physiol 28:89–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Forni C, Duca D, Glick BR (2017) Mechanisms of plant response to salt and drought stress and their alteration by rhizobacteria. Plant Soil 410:335–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frankenberger WT, Bingham FT (1982) Influence of salinity on soil enzyme-activities. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:1173–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fricke W, Akhiyarova G, Veselov D, Kudoyarova G (2004) Rapid and tissue- specific changes in ABA and in growth rate in response to salinity in barley leaves. J Exp Bot 55:1115–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Frota JNE, Tucker TC (1978) Absorption rates of ammonium and nitrate by red kidney beans under salt and water stress. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42:753–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Galinski EA, Truper HG (1994) Microbial behaviour in salt-stressed ecosystems. FEMS Microbiol Rev 15:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gara L, Pinto D, De MC, Tommasi F (2003) The antioxidant systems vis-à-vis reactive oxygen species during plant – pathogen interaction. Plant Physiol Biochem 41:863–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Garg BK, Gupta IC (2011) Salinity tolerance in plants: methods, mechanisms and management. Scientific Publishers, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  50. Garcia C, Hernandez T (1996) Influence of salinity on the biological and biochemical activity of a calciorthird soil. Plant Soil 178:255–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Garciadeblas B, Senn ME, Banuelos MA, Rodriguez-Navarro A (2003) Sodium transport and HKT transporters: the rice model. Plant J 34:788–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gasol JM, Casamayor EO, Joint I, Garde K, Gustavson K, Benlloch S, Diez B, Schauer M, Massana R, Pedrs-Ali C (2004) Control of heterotrophic prokaryotic abundance and growth rate in hypersaline planktonic environments. Aquat Microb Ecol 34:193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ghosh B, Ali Md N, Saikat G (2016) Response of rice under salinity stress: a review update. J Res Rice 4:167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gibson TS (1988) Carbohydrate metabolism and phosphorus/salinity interactions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Soil 111:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Goudarzi A, Banihashemi Z, Maftoun M (2011) Effect of salt and water stress on root infection by Macrophomina phaseolina and ion composition in shoot in sorghum. Iran J Plant Pathol 47:69–83Google Scholar
  56. Grattan SR, Grieve CM (1992) Mineral element acquisition and growth response of plants grown in saline environments. Agric Ecosyst Environ 38:275–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Grattan SR, Grieve CM (1999) Salinity-mineral nutrient relations in horticulture crops. Sci Hortic 78:127–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Grattan SR, Maas EV (1985) Root control of leaf phosphorus and chlorine accumulation in soybean under salinity stress. Agron J 77:890–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gruber BD, Giehl RFH, Friedel S, Wirén NV (2013) Plasticity of the Arabidopsis root system under nutrient deficiencies. Plant Physiol 163:161–179PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Biol 51:463–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Havaux I (1993) Rapid photosynthetic adaptation to heat stress triggered in potato leaves by moderately elevated temperatures. Plant Cell Environ 16:461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. He Y, Zhu Z, Yang J, Ni X, Zhu B (2009) Grafting increases the salt tolerance of tomato by improvement of photosynthesis and enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activity. Environ. Exp Bot 66:270–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Helal HM, Mengel K (1979) Nitrogen metabolism of young barley plants as affected by NaCI salinity and potassium. Plant Soil 51:547–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Homaee M, Feddes RA, Dirksen C (2002) A macroscopic water extraction model for nonuniform transient salinity and water stress. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:1764–1772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. James RA, Rivelli AR, Munns R, von Caemmerer S (2002) Factors affecting CO2 assimilation, leaf injury and growth in salt-stressed durum wheat. Funct Plant Biol 29:1393–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jeschke WD, Nassery H (1981) K+-Na+ selectivity in roots of Triticum, Helianthus and Allium. Physiol Plant 52:217–224Google Scholar
  67. Jha Y, Subramanian RB (2016) Regulation of plant physiology and antioxidant enzymes for alleviating salinity stress by potassium-mobilizing bacteria. In: Meena VS, Maurya BR, Verma JP, Meena RS (eds) Potassium solubilizing microorganisms for sustainable agriculture. Springer, New Delhi, pp 149–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kalaji HM, Jajoo A, Oukarroum A, Brestic M, Zivcak M, Samborska IA, Cetner MD, Łukasik I, Goltsev V, Ladle RJ (2016) Chlorophyll a fluorescence as a tool to monitor physiological status of plants under abiotic stress conditions. Acta Physiol Plant 38:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kalaji H, Nalborczyk E (1991) Gas exchange of barley seedlings growing under salinity stress. Photosynthetica 25:197–202Google Scholar
  70. Kalifa A, Barthakur NN, Donnelly DJ (2000) Phosphorus reduces salinity stress in micropropagated potato. Am J Potato Res 77:179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kellermeier F, Armengaud P, Seditas TJ, Danku J, Salt DE, Amtmann A (2014) Analysis of the root system architecture of Arabidopsis provides a quantitative readout of crosstalk between nutritional signals. Plant Cell 26:1480–1496PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kempf B, Bremer E (1998) Uptake and synthesis of compatible solutes as microbial stress responses to high-osmolality environments. Arch Microbiol 170:319–330PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Khan AL, Hamayun M, Ahmad N, Hussain J, Kang SM, Kim YH, Adnan M, Tang DS, Waqas M, Radhakrishnan R, Hwang YH, Hwang YH (2011) Salinity stress resistance offered by endophytic fungal interaction between Penicillium minioluteum LHL09 and Glycine max L. J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:893–902PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Kleber M (2010) What is recalcitrant soil organic matter. Environ Chem 7:320–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kotuby AJ, Rich K, Boyd K (2002) Salinity and plant tolerance, Paper AG-SO-03. Electronic PublishingGoogle Scholar
  76. Lagerwerff JV, Eagle HE (1962) Transpiration related to ion uptake by beans from saline substrates. Soil Sci 93:420–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lakshmi-Kumari M, Singh CS, Subba Rao NS (1974) Root hair infection and nodulation of Lucerne (Medicago saliva L.) as influenced by salinity and alkalinity. Plant Soil 40:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Larcher W (1995) Physiological plant ecology, 3rd edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Levin AG, Lavee S, Tsror L (2003) Epidemiology of Verticillium dahliae on olive (cv. Picual) and its effect on yield under saline conditions. Plant Pathol 52:212–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Maathuis FJM, Amtmann A (1999) K+ nutrition and Na+ toxicity: the basis of cellular K+ /Na+ ratios. Ann Bot 84:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. MacDonald JD (1984) Salinity effects on the susceptibility of chrysanthemum roots to Phytophthora cryptogea. Phytopathology 74:621–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Malik A, Gleixner G (2013) Importance of microbial soil organic matter processing in dissolved organic carbon production. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 86:139–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. Martins CP, Neves DM, Cidade LC, Mendes AF, Silva DC, Almeida AAF, Coelho-Filho MA, Gesteira AS, Soares-Filho WS, Costa MG (2017) Expression of the citrus CsTIP2; 1 gene improves tobacco plant growth, antioxidant capacity and physiological adaptation under stress conditions. Planta 245:951–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mehta P, Jajoo A, Mathur S, Bharti S (2010) Chlorophyll a fluorescence study revealing effects of high salt stress on photosystem II in wheat leaves. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:16–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mohamed DJ, Martiny JBH (2011) Patterns of fungal diversity and composition along a salinity gradient. ISME J 5:379–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Moradi F, Ismail AM (2007) Responses of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and ROS-scavenging systems to salt stress during seedling and reproductive stages in rice. Ann Bot 99:1161–1173PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Murillo-Amador B, Nieto-Garibay A, Troyo-Diéguez E, García-Hernández JL, Hernández-Montiel L, Valdez-Cepeda RD (2015) Moderate salt stress on the physiological and morphological traits of Aloe vera L. Bot Sci 93:639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nachmias A, Kaufman Z, Livescu L, Tsror MA, Caligari PDS (1993) Effects of salinity and its interactions with disease incidence on potatoes grown in hot climates. Phytoparasitica 21:245–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Negrão S, Schmöckel SM, Tester M (2017) Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress. Ann Bot 119:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nelson PN, Ladd JN, Oades JM (1996) Decomposition of 14C-labelled plant material in a salt-affected soil. Soil Biol Biochem 28:433–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nelson DE, Shen B, Bohnert HJ (1998) Salinity tolerance mechanisms, models and the metabolic engineering of complex traits. In: Setlow JK (ed) Genetic engineering: principles and methods, vol 20. Plenum Press, New York, pp 153–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Newer B, Ali A, Zarqawi H (2013) Soil salinity mapping model developed using remote sensing and GIS in Libya. In Proceedings of the Annual International Conference 7th Edition of Geotunis, Southern Hammamet, Tunis, pp 4–12Google Scholar
  96. Nieman RH, Clark RA (1976) Interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus nutrition on the concentrations of phosphate and phosphate esters in mature photosynthesizing corn leaves. Plant Physiol 57:11557–11161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Niewiadomska E, Karpinska B, Romanowska E, Slesak I, Karpinski S (2004) A salinity-induced C3-CAM transition increases energy conservation in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. Plant Cell Physiol 45:789–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Niu X, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM, Pardo JM (1995) Ion homeostasis in NaCl stress environments. Plant Physiol 109:735–742PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ondrasek G, Rengel Z, Veres S (2011) Soil salinisation and salt stress in crop production. In: Shanker AK, Venkateswarlu B (eds) Abiotic stress in plants – mechanisms and adaptations. In Tech, Rijeka. isbn:978-953-307-394-1Google Scholar
  100. Orhan F (2016) Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Braz J Microbiol 47:621–627PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Palfi G (1965) The effect of sodium salt on the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and amino acid content of rice shoots. Plant and Soil 22:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pandey P, Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumar M (2015) Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms. Front Plant Sci 6:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pankhurst CE, Yu S, Hawke BG, Harch BD (2001) Capacity of fatty acid profiles and substrate utilization patterns to describe differences in soil microbial communities associated with increased salinity or alkalinity at three locations in South Australia. Biol Fertil Soils 33:204–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pedrós-Alió C, Caldern-Paz JI, MacLean MH, Medina G, Marrase C, Gasol JM, Guixa-Boixereu N (2000) The microbial food web along salinity gradients. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 32:143–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Peret B, Desnos T, Jost R, Kanno S, Berkowitz O, Nussaume L (2014) Root architecture responses in search of phosphate. Plant Physiol 166:1713–1723PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Platten JD, Cotsaftis O, Berthomieu P, Bohnert H, Davenport RJ, Fairbairn DJ, Horie T, Leigh RA, Lin HX, Luan S, Mäser P (2009) Nomenclature for HKT transporters, key determinants of plant salinity tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 11:372–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Popova LP, Stoinova ZG, Maslenkova LT (1995) Involvement of abscisic acid in photosynthetic process in Hordeum vulgare L. during salinity stress. J Plant Growth Regul 14:211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Purvis AC, Shewfelt RL (1993) Does the alternative pathway ameliorate chilling injury in sensitive plant tissues. Physiol Plant 88:712–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Radanielson AM, Gaydon DS, Li T, Angeles O, Roth CH (2018) Modeling salinity effect on rice growth and grain yield with ORYZA v3 and APSIM-Oryza. Eur J Agron 100:44–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Raga V, Intrigliolo DS, Bernet GP, Carbonell EA, Asins MJ (2016) Genetic analysis of salt tolerance in a progeny derived from the citrus rootstocks Cleopatra mandarin and trifoliate orange. Tree Genet Genom 12:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ragazzi A, Vecchio V (1992) Behaviour of chlamydospore of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum in substrates containing sodium chloride. Phytopathol Mediterr 31:85–87Google Scholar
  112. Raich JW, Potter CS (1995) Global patterns of carbon-dioxide emissions from soils. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 9:23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rajendran K, Tester M, Roy SJ (2009) Quantifying the three main components of salinity tolerance in cereals. Plant Cell Environ 32:237–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rasmussen SL, Stanghellini ME (1988) Effect of salinity stress on development of Pythium blight in Agrostis palustris. Phytopathol 78:1495–1497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Rath KM, Rousk J (2015) Salt effects on the soil microbial decomposer community and their role in organic carbon cycling: a review. Soil Biol Biochem 81:108–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Reddy INBL, Kim B-K, Yoon IS, Kim KH, Kwon TR (2017) Salt tolerance in rice: focus on mechanisms and approaches. Rice Sci 24:12–144Google Scholar
  117. Rhoads DM, Umbach AL, Subbaiah CC, Siedow JN (2006) Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Contribution to oxidative stress and interorganellar signaling. Plant Physiol 141:357–366PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Riadh K, Wided M, Hans-Werner K, Chedly A (2010) Responses of halophytes to environmental stresses with special emphasis to salinity. Adv Biol Res 53:117–145Google Scholar
  119. Rietz DN, Haynes RJ (2003) Effects of irrigation-induced salinity and sodicity on soil microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 35:845–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rousk J, Elyaagubi FK, Jones DL, Godbold DL (2011) Bacterial salt tolerance is unrelated to soil salinity across an arid agroecosystem salinity gradient. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1881–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sanogo S (2004) Response of Chile pepper to Phytophthora capsici in relation to soil salinity. Plant Dis 88:205–209PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Sardinha M, Muller T, Schmeisky H, Joergensen RG (2003) Microbial performance in soils along a salinity gradient under acidic conditions. Appl Soil Ecol 23:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Saviozzi A, Cardelli R, Di Puccio R (2011) Impact of salinity on soil biological activities: a laboratory experiment. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 42:358–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Schoeneweiss DF (1975) Predisposition, stress, and plant disease. Annu Rev Phytopathol 13:193–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Setia R, Smith P, Marschner P, Gottschalk P, Baldock J, Verma V, Setia D, Smith J (2012) Simulation of salinity effects on past, present, and future soil organic carbon stocks. Environ Sci Technol 46:1624–1631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Shabala S, Cuin TA (2008) Potassium transport and plant salt tolerance. Physiol Plant 133:651–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shannon MC (1997) Adaptation of plants to salinity. Adv Agron 60:75–120Google Scholar
  128. Sima NAKK, Ahmad ST, Alitabar RA, Mottaghi A, Pessarakli M (2012) Interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus nutrition on physiological responses of two barley species. J Plant Nutri 35:1411–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Singleton PW, Bohlool BB (1984) Effect of salinity on nodule formation by soybean. Plant Physiol 74:72–76PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Soliman MS, Shalabi HG, Campbell WF (1994) Interaction of salinity, nitrogen, and phosphorus fertilization on wheat. J Plant Nutri 17:116–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Stepien P, Johnson GN (2009) Contrasting responses of photosynthesis to salt stress in the glycophyte Arabidopsis and the halophyte Thellungiella: role of the plastid terminal oxidase as an alternative electron sink. Plant Physiol 149:1154–1165PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Swarup A (1994) Chemistry of salt-affected soils and fertility management. In: LN RD, Singh NT, Gupta RK, Tyagi NK (eds) Salinity Management for Sustainable Agriculture. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, pp 18–40Google Scholar
  133. Takemura T, Hanagata N, Sugihara K, Baba S, Karube I, Dubinsky Z (2000) Physiological and biochemical responses to salt stress in the mangrove, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Aquat Bot 68:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Tresner HD, Hayes JA (1971) Sodium chloride tolerance of terrestrial fungi. Appl Microbiol 22:210–213PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. Tu JC (1981) Effect of salinity on Rhizobium root hair interaction, nodulation and growth of soybean. Can J Plant Sci 61:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Turco E, Naldini D, Ragazzi A (2002) Disease incidence and vessel anatomy in cotton plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum under salinity stress. Zeitschrif Pflanzenk Pflanzen 109:15–24Google Scholar
  137. Tuteja N (2007) Mechanisms of high salinity tolerance in plants. Methods Enzymol 428:419–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ullrich WR (2002) Salinity and nitrogen nutrition. In: Läuchli A, Lüttge U (eds) Salinity: environment plants molecules. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  139. Véry AA, Sentenac H (2003) Molecular mechanisms and regulation of K+ transport in higher plants. Ann Rev Plant Biol 54:575–603Google Scholar
  140. Waisel Y (1972) Biology of halophytes. Academic Press, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  141. Wakeel A (2013) Potassium–sodium interactions in soil and plant under saline-sodic conditions. J Plant Nutri Soil Sci 174:344–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Walsh DA, Papke RT, Doolittle WF (2005) Archaeal diversity along a soil salinity gradient prone to disturbance. Environ Microbiol 7:1655–1666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wang M, Zheng Q, Shen Q, Guo S (2013) The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. Int J Mol Sci 14:7370–7390PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wichern J, Wichern F, Joergensen RG (2006) Impact of salinity on soil microbial communities and the decomposition of maize in acidic soils. Geoderma 137:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wong VNL, Dalal RC, Greene RSB (2009) Carbon dynamics of sodic and saline soils following gypsum and organic material additions: a laboratory incubation. Appl Soil Ecol 41:29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Xu J, Huang X, Lan H, Zhang H, Huang J (2016) Rearrangement of nitrogen metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under salt stress. Plant Signal Behav 11:e1138194PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yaish MW, Kumar PP (2015) Salt tolerance research in date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.), past, present, and future perspectives. Front Plant Sci 6:348PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  148. Yamaguchi T, Blumwald E (2005) Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities. Trends Plant Sci 10:615–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Yan N, Marschner P (2012) Response of microbial activity and biomass to increasing salinity depends on the final salinity, not the original salinity. Soil Biol Biochem 53:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Yan N, Marschner P, Cao W, Zuo C, Qin W (2015) Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms. ISWCR 3:316–323Google Scholar
  151. Yu LH, Wu SJ, Peng YS, Liu RN, Chen X, Zhao P, Xu P, Zhu JB, Jiao GL, Pei Y, Xiang CB (2016) Arabidopsis EDT1/HDG11 improves drought and salt tolerance in cotton and poplar and increases cotton yield in the field. Plant Biotechnol J 14:72–84PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Zhang R, Sharkey TD (2009) Photosynthetic electron transport and proton flux under moderate heat stress. Photosynthesis Res 100:29–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zhang GH, Su Q, An LJ, Wu S (2008) Characterization and expression of a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene from the monocot halophyte Aeluropus littoralis. Plant Physiol Biochem 46:117–126PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. Zhu J, Meinzer FC (1999) Efficiency of C4 photosynthesis in Atriplex lentiformis under salinity stress. Aust J Plant Physiol 26:79–86Google Scholar
  155. Zhukovskaya NV (1973) Absorption and accumulation of phosphate by plants under conditions of salinization. Sov Plant Physiol 20:55–61Google Scholar
  156. Zrig A, Mohamed HB, Tounekti T, Khemira H, Serrano M, Valero D, Vadel AM (2016) Effect of rootstock on salinity tolerance of sweet almond (cv. Mazzetto). South Afr J Bot 102:50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ankita Bidalia
    • 1
  • Krati Vikram
    • 2
  • Gupta Yamal
    • 3
  • K. S. Rao
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyBhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, University of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of BotanyKirori Mal College, University of DelhiDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations