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The Strategies of Nanomaterials for Traversing Blood-Brain Barrier

  • Mohd Ahmar Rauf
  • Fawad Ur Rehman
  • Meng Zheng
  • Bingyang ShiEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Central nervous system (CNS) ailments establish an arrangement of difficult neurotic conditions concerning identification and therapeutics. For the more significant part of these clusters, there is an absence of an early determination, biomarkers to permit legitimate follow-up of infection movement and powerful, effective methodologies to permit a diligent fix.

The engraved prognosis and diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease at advanced stages and in older people are recognized as serious health concern worldwide, especially interminable age-related neurodegenerative malfunctions that are reflected as general well-being issues.

The principal issue related to the management of CNS infections is owed, in any event to some degree, to specific qualities of the brain and spinal cord, when contrasted with peripheral organs. In such manner, the CNS is physically and synthetically secured by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that is responsible for the maintenance of brain’s homeostasis and substantially limits the movement of most therapeutics to the brain parenchyma. Different methodologies for the therapeutics were developed and modified for transposing the BBB and expecting to treat brain disorders, without meddling with the regular functioning of the brain.

In the present chapter, we will try to harness the most recent advances in neurodegenerative diseases amelioration approaches based on distinctive drug delivery systems via nanoscale materials, exosomes, and RNAi (i.e., siRNA, etc.) based frameworks.

Key Points
  1. 1.

    The nanobiotechnology assumes an encouraging job while delivering the therapeutics across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that is considered to be a noteworthy snag to remedial delivery for CNS issue.

     
  2. 2.

    Attractive attributes of the perfect strategy for remedial delivery over the BBB are depicted in this study. It should allow specific targated medication conveyance without harming the BBB.

     
  3. 3.

    Polymeric NPs had shown the most positive results among the large number of nanoparticles for the convergence of the BBB.

     
  4. 4.

    Diffrent modes of drug delivery vehicles were employed for crossing the BBB, like modifying NPs for improving specific targeting, viz., Trojan steed approach, and employment of peptide-NP conjugates and also two industrial innovations: LipoBridge™ and G-Technology®.

     
  5. 5.

    Targeting of siRNA employing exosomes.

     
  6. 6.

    The important part of employing nanotechnology for the treatment of CNS maladies is that in addition to the delivery of therapeutics to the brain, it also allowed its trackings and empowers imaging and therapy of brain tumors.

     
  7. 7.

    In the coming age, there will be an improvement in the nanotechnology for CNS issues.

     

Keywords

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) Central nervous system (CNS) Nanoparticles (NPs) Alzheimer disease (AD) Parkinson disease (PD) Polyethylene glycol (PEG) siRNA 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Ahmar Rauf
    • 1
  • Fawad Ur Rehman
    • 1
  • Meng Zheng
    • 1
  • Bingyang Shi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.International Joint Centre for Biomedical InnovationHenan UniversityKaifengChina

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