Biogas: An Effective and Common Energy Tool – Part I

  • Seethalaksmi Elangovan
  • Sathish Babu Soundra Pandian
  • Geetha S. J.
  • Sanket J. JoshiEmail author
Part of the Clean Energy Production Technologies book series (CEPT)


Energy is a much crucial necessity for daily errands, either household or industrial. We use it as fuel (transportation or industrial commodity), to provide power, heat, electricity, etc., and we can’t imagine life without it. Several kinds of fuels are available in the market, mainly non-renewables – fossil based (coal, crude oil, etc.). However, due to awareness about long-term issues related to use of fossil fuels, several other types of renewable fuels are gaining much attention. Biogas, biofuels (bioethanol, biodiesel), and biohydrogen are some of the examples for such renewables with very high future potential. However, even with those recent developments, rural areas in some of the developing countries are still using agricultural remains, cow dung, etc., for cooking and heating purposes. This kind of crude practice significantly raises environmental, economic, and public health-related worries. To achieve a worldwide sustainable progress in both developed and developing countries, clean and affordable energy could be offered by using the existing biomass resources (crop residues, agro-industrial, animal, and other type of wastes) to produce a cleaner, more efficient, and reliable energy, such as biogas. Unlike other types of renewable biofuels, biogas production is a natural non-energy intensive process, and the raw materials are mostly renewable resource and wastes – thus serving both purposes, bioremediation and energy generation. Biogas is a blend of gases, mainly methane and carbon dioxide. Over the years, several biogas plant designs are available, which are compiled in present chapter along with its advantages and disadvantages. At present several countries are already utilizing biogas for various household and industrial applications. The main applications are generating electricity, cooking, heating, and using as a fuel for transportation. The ease of operation, maintenance, and easy availability of substrate – waste materials – are some of the key selling points for biogas to be an effective and common energy tool in the near future.


Energy Fossil fuels Renewables Biofuel Biogas 


  1. Al-Sadi M (2010) Design and building of biogas digester for organic materials gained from solid waste. M. Sc. thesis, Faculty of Graduate Studies, An-Najah National University, Nablus, PalestineGoogle Scholar
  2. Alves MM, Pereira MA, Sousa DZ, Cavaleiro AJ, Picavet M, Smidt H, Stams AJM (2009) Waste lipids to energy: how to optimize methane production from long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Microbial Biotechnol 2:538–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alwis AD (2002) Biogas – a review of Sri Lanka’s performance with a renewable energy technology. Energy Sustain Dev 6(1):30–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Angelidaki I, Sanders W (2004) Assessment of the anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 3(2):117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Apte A, Cheernam V, Kamat M, Kamat S, Kashikar P, Jeswani H (2013) Potential of using kitchen waste in a biogas plant. Int J Environ Sci Dev 4:370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armaha EK, Tetteha EK, Boamah BB (2017) Overview of biogas production from different feedstocks. Int J Sci Res Publ 7(12):158Google Scholar
  7. Attwood GT, Kelly WJ, Altermann EH, Leahy SC (2007) Analysis of the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium draft genome: understanding methanogen biology to inhibit their action in the rumen. Aust J Exp Agric 48:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balk M, Weijma J, Stams AJM (2002) Thermotogalettingae sp. nov., a novel thermophilic, methanol-degrading bacterium isolated from a thermophilic anaerobic reactor. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52:1361–1368Google Scholar
  9. Batstone DJ, Keller J, Angelidaki I, Kalyuzhnyi SV, Pavlostathis SG, Rozzi A, Sanders WTM, Siegrist HA, Vavilin VA (2002) Anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1), task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhardwaj S, Das P (2017) A review: advantages and disadvantages of biogas. Int Res J Eng Technol 04(10)Google Scholar
  11. Bischofsberger W, Dichtl N, Rosnwinkel KH, Bohnke CFSB (2005) Anaerob technik. 2. Auflage. Heidelberg. Germany. ISBN:978-3-540-06850-1Google Scholar
  12. Blumer SSE, Kataeva I, Westpheling J, Adams MWW, Kelly RM (2008) Extremely thermophilic microorganisms for biomass conversion: status and prospects. Curr Opin Biotechnol 19:210–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bond T, Templeton MR (2011) History and future of domestic biogas plants in the developing world. Energy Sustain Dev 15:347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown VJ (2006) Biogas: a bright idea for Africa. Environ Health Perspect 114(5):A301–A303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brune A (2010) Methanogenesis in the digestive tracts of insects. In: Timmis KW (ed) Handbook of hydrocarbon and lipid microbiology. Springer, Berlin/Herdelberg, pp 707–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burrell PC, O’Sullivan C, Song H, Clarke WP, Black-all LL (2004) The identification, detection and spatial resolution of Clostridium populations responsible for cellulose degradation in a methanogenic landfill leachate bioreactor. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:2414–2419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Castellucci S, Cocchi S, Allegrini E, Vecchione L (2013) Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes. J Agric Eng Res 44(s2)Google Scholar
  18. Cha GC, Chung HK, Kim DJ (2001) Characteristics of temperature change on the substrate degradation and bacterial population in one-phase and two-phase anaerobic digestion. Environ Eng Res 6:99–108Google Scholar
  19. Chambers AK, Potter I (2002) Gas utilization from sewage waste. Alberta Research Council, Alberta, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  20. Chandra R, Takeuchi H, Hasegawa T, Kumar R (2012) Improving biodegradability and biogas production of wheat straw substrates using sodium hydroxide and hydrothermal pretreatments. Energy 43(1):273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen Y, Cheng JJ, Creamer KS (2008) Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review. Bioresour Technol 99(10):4044–4064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen Y, Yang G, Sweeney S, Feng Y (2010) Household biogas use in rural China: a study of opportunities and constraints. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14(1):545–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen JL, Ortiz R, Steele TWJ, Stuckey DC (2014) Toxicants inhibiting anaerobic digestion: a review. Biotechnol Adv 32(8):1523–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dana B (2009) Build manual: ARTI floating dome biodigester, Appropriate Infrastructure Development Group (AIDG)Google Scholar
  25. De Clercq D, Zongguo W, Fei F, Luis C (2016) Biomethane production potential from restaurant food waste in megacities and project level-bottlenecks: a case study in Beijing. Renew Sust Energ Rev 59:1676–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. De Mes TZD, Stams AJM, Reith JH, Zeeman G (2003) Methane production by anaerobic digestion of wastewater and solid wastes. In: Reith JH, Wijffels RH, Barten H (eds) Bio-methane and bio-hydrogen: status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production. Dutch Biological Hydrogen Foundation, Petten, pp 58–102Google Scholar
  27. Demirel B, Scherer P (2008) The roles of acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens during anaerobic conversion of biomass to methane: a review. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 7(2):173–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Deublein D, Steinhauser A (2008) Biogas from waste and renewable resources. Wiley. ISBN:978-3-527-31841-4Google Scholar
  29. Everson TM, Smith MT (2016) Improving rural livelihoods through biogas generation using livestock manure and rainwater harvesting. Volume 2: guideline report. Report to the water research commissionGoogle Scholar
  30. Florentino H (2003) Mathematical tool to size rural digesters. Sci Agric 60(1):185–190. ISSN:0103-9016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Forster-Carneiro T, Pérez M, Romero LI (2008) Influence of total solid and inoculum contents on performance of anaerobic reactors treating food waste. Bioresour Technol 99(15):6994–7002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fry LJ (1974) Practical building of methane power plants for rural energy independence. The EPA National Library Catalog, Andover. ISBN:10: 0960098410Google Scholar
  33. Fulford D (1988) Running a biogas programme: a handbook. Intermediate Technology Publications, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gao R, Yuan X, Zhu W, Wang X, Chen S, Cheng X, Cui Z (2012) Methane yield through anaerobic digestion for various maize varieties in China. Bioresour Technol 118:611–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gerardi MH (2003) The microbiology of anaerobic digester. Wiley. ISBN:978-0-471-20693-4Google Scholar
  36. Guendouz AA, Brockmann D, Trably E, Dumas C, Delgenès JP, Steyer JP, Escudie R (2012) Total solids content drives high solid anaerobic digestion via mass transfer limitation. Bioresour Technol 111:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Haftu G, Solomon M, Giday G (2018) Qualitative and quantitative feasibility of biogas production from kitchen waste. Am J Energy Eng 6(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hamilton DW (2012) Organic matter content of wastewater and manure. BAE 1760, Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Stillwater, OklahomaGoogle Scholar
  39. Hattori S, Galushko AS, Kamagata Y, Schink B (2005) Operation of the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl coenzyme A pathway in both acetate oxidation and formation by the syntrophically acetate oxidizing bacterium Thermacetogeniumphaeum. J Bacteriol 187:3471–3476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heffels T, McKenna R, Fichtner W (2012) Direct marketing of electricity from biogas and biomethane: an economic analysis of several business models in Germany. J Manag Control 23:53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hori T, Sasaki D, Haruta S, Shigematsu T, Ueno Y, Ishii M, Igarashi Y (2011) Detection of active, potentially acetate-oxidizing syntrophs in an anaerobic digester by flux measurement and formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase expression profiling. Microbiology 157:1980–1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Igoni AH, Ayotamuno MJ, Eze CL, Ogaji SOT, Probert SD (2007) Designs of anaerobic digesters for producing biogas from municipal solid waste. Appl Energy 85:430–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ingale S, Joshi SJ, Gupte A (2014) Production of bioethanol using agricultural waste: banana pseudo stem. Braz J Microbiol 45(3):885–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ingale S, Parnandi VA, Joshi SJ (2019) Bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in calcium alginate–magnetite beads and application of response surface methodology to optimize bioethanol yield. In: Srivastava N, Srivastava M, Mishra P, Upadhyay S, Ramteke P, Gupta V (eds) Sustainable approaches for biofuels production technologies, Biofuel and biorefinery technologies, vol 7. Springer, Cham, pp 147–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ion VI, Popescu F (2016) Efficiency improvement of a biogas engine-driven CHP plant. Sci Work Univ Food Technol 63(1)Google Scholar
  46. Itodo IN, Agyo GE, Yusuf P (2007) Performance evaluation of a biogas stove for cooking in Nigeria. J Energy S Afr 18(4):14–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jian L (2009) Socioeconomic barriers to biogas development in rural Southwest China: an ethnographic case study. Hum Organ 68(4):415–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Karki AB (2005) Biogas, as renewable source of energy in Nepal theory and Development, BSP-NepalGoogle Scholar
  49. Karki AB, Gautam KM, Karki A (1994) Biogas installation from elephant dung at Machan Wildlife Resort, Chitwan, Nepal. Biogas Newsletter, Issue No 45Google Scholar
  50. Kayhanian M (1999) Ammonia inhibition in high-solids biogasification: an overview and practical solutions. Environ Technol 20:355–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Khalid A, Arshad M, Anjum M, Mahmood T, Dawson L (2011) The anaerobic digestion of solid organic waste – review. Waste Manag 31(8):1737–1744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Khan BH (2009) Non-conventional energy resources, Mechanical engineering series. Mc Graw Hill Education, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  53. Klocke M, Nettmann E, Bergmann I, Mundt K, Souidi K, Mumme J, Link B (2008) Characterization of the methanogenic archaea within two-phase biogas reactor systems operated with plant biomass. Syst Appl Microbiol 31:190–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kossmann W, Pönitz U, Habermehl S, Hoerz T, Krämer P, Klingler B, Kellner C, Wittur T, von Klopotek F, Krieg A, Euler H (1999) Biogas digest volume I – IV. German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), EschbornGoogle Scholar
  55. Kudaravelli K (2013) Biogas plant construction manual – fixed dome Deenbandhu model digester: 2 to 6 cubic meter size. Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, CairoGoogle Scholar
  56. Kwietniewska E, Tys J (2014) Process characteristics, inhibition factors and methane yields of anaerobic digestion process, with particular focus on microalgal biomass fermentation. Renew Sust Energy Rev 34:491–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Li A, Chu Y, Wang X, Ren L, Yu J, Liu X, Yan J, Zhang L, Wu S, Li S (2013) A pyrosequencing-based metagenomic study of methane-producing microbial community in solid-state biogas reactor. Biotechnol Biofuels 6:3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lozano CJS, Mendoza MV, de Arango MC, Monroy EFC (2009) Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment. Waste Manag 29:704–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Macario DEC (2008) Taxonomy of methanogens. In: Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, 2nd edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Mata AJ (2003) Biomethanization of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  61. Mayer F, Gerin PA, Noo A, Foucart G, Flammang J, Lemaigre S, Sinnaeve G, Dardenne P, Delfosse P (2014) Assessment of factors influencing the biomethane yield of maize silages. Bioresour Technol 153:260–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McInerney MJ, Struchtemeyer CG, Sieber J, Mouttaki H, Stams AJM, Schnink B, Rohlin L, Gunsalus RP (2008) Physiology, ecology, phylogeny, and genomics of microorganisms capable of syntrophic metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1125:58–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Metcalf E (2004) Wastewater engineering: treatment and reuse. In: Franklin L, Burton H, Stensel D (eds) Revised by George tchobanoglous, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Möller K (2015) Effects of anaerobic digestion on soil carbon and nitrogen turnover, N emissions, and soil biological activity. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 35:1021–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Moody LR, Burns R, Wu-Haan W, Spajić R (2009) Use of biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays for predicting and enhancing anaerobic digester performance. In: Proceedings of the 4th international and 44th Croatian symposium of agriculture, OptijaGoogle Scholar
  66. Nealson KH (1997) Sediment bacteria: who’s there, what are they doing, and what’s new? Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 25:403–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nges IA, Escobar F, Fu X, Björnsson L (2012) Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production. Waste Manag 32(1):53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nzila C, Dewulf J, Spanjers H, Tuigong D, Kiriamiti H, van Langenhove H (2012) Multi criteria sustainability assessment of biogas production in Kenya. Appl Energy 93:496–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ogur EO, Mbatia S (2013) Conversion of kitchen waste into biogas. Int J Eng Sci 2(11):70–76Google Scholar
  70. Ovueni UJ (2014) Comparative study of the heating capacity of biogas and conventional cooking gas. Int J Eng Sci 3(1):7–10Google Scholar
  71. Patel J (1951) Digestion of waste organic matter and organic fertilizer and a new economic apparatus for small scale digestion. Poona Agri Coll Mag (India) 42(3):150–159Google Scholar
  72. Pathak H, Jain N, Mohanty S, Gupta N (2009) Global warming mitigation potential of biogas plants in India. Environ Monit Assess 157:407–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Peter JJ (2009) Biogas –green energy. Digisource Danmark A/S. ISBN:978-87-992243-2-1Google Scholar
  74. Pfeifer J, Obernberger I (2007) Technology evaluation of an agricultural biogas CHP plant as well as definition of guiding values for the improved design and operation. In: 15th European biomass conference & exhibition, 7–11 May 2007, Berlin, Germany, pp 1864–1868Google Scholar
  75. Pourmovahed A, Opperman T, Lemke B (2011) Performance and efficiency of a biogas CHP system utilizing a stirling engine. In: Proceedings of international conference on renewable energies and power quality, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain (Vol. 1315)Google Scholar
  76. Prakash O, Anil K, Pandey A, Kumara A, Laguria V (2015) A review on biogas plant. Int J New Technol Sci Eng 2(4). ISSN:2349-0780Google Scholar
  77. Pruthviraj NB (2016) Introduction to biogas & applications. Int J Adv Res Mech Eng Technol (IJARMET) 2(4)Google Scholar
  78. Reddy SN, Satyanarayana SV, Sudha G (2017) Bio gas generation from biodegradable kitchen waste. Int J Environ Agric Biotechnol 2(2):0689–0694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rutz D, Mergner R, Janssen R (2015) Sustainable heat use of biogas plants. A handbook, biogas heat. WIP Renewable Energies, MunichGoogle Scholar
  80. Salminen E, Einola J, Rintala J (2003) The methane production of poultry slaughtering residues and effects of pre-treatments on the methane production of poultry feather. Environ Technol 24:1079–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Samah E (2016) Measuring small-scale biogas capacity and production. International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi. ISBN:978-92-95111-12-7Google Scholar
  82. Samer M (2012). Chapter 17: Biogas plant constructions, biogas. In: Kumar S (ed). ISBN:978-953-51-0204-5. InTechGoogle Scholar
  83. Sasse L (1988) Biogas Plants by A Publication of the Deutsches Zentrum für Entwicklungstechnologien – GATE in: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbHGoogle Scholar
  84. Sasse L, Kellner C, Kimaro A (1991) Improved biogas unit for developing countries. Vieweg and Sohn, EschbornGoogle Scholar
  85. Schievano A, Scaglia B, D’Imporzano G, Malagutti L, Gozzi A, Adani F (2009) Prediction of biogas potentials using quick laboratory analyses: upgrading previous models for application to heterogeneous organic matrices. Bioresour Technol 100(23):5777–5782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sharma KR (2008) In: Khanal SK (ed) Kinetics and modeling in anaerobic processes in anaerobic technology for bioenergy production: principles and applications. Wiley-Blackwell, AmesGoogle Scholar
  87. Sharma N, Giuseppe P (1991) Anaerobic biotechnology and developing countries – technical status. Energy Conversion 32:447–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sibiya NT, Muzenda E, Mbohwa C (2017) Evaluation of potential substrates for biogas production via anaerobic digestion: a review. In: Proceedings of the world congress on engineering and computer science WCECS 2017, vol II, October 25–27, San Francisco, USAGoogle Scholar
  89. Singh TS, Sankarlal P (2015) Production of biogas from kitchen waste using cow manure as co-substrate. In: Proceedings of the conference on “Energy conversion and conservation”, 27/03/2015Google Scholar
  90. Singh JB, Myles R, Dhussa A (1987) Manual on Deenbandhu biogas plant. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  91. Speece RE (1996) Anaerobic biotechnology for industrial wastewaters. Archae Press, NashvilleGoogle Scholar
  92. Stalin N (2007) Performance evaluation of partial mixing anaerobic digester. ARPN J Appl Sci 2:1–6Google Scholar
  93. Stefan M (2004) Biogas fuel for internal combustion engines. Annals of the Faculty of Engineering Hunedoara – 2004 Tome II. Fascicole 3Google Scholar
  94. Surendra KC, Takara D, Hashimoto AG, Khanal SK (2014) Biogas as a sustainable energy source for developing countries: opportunities and challenges. Renew Sust Energ Rev 31:846–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Syamsuri S, Yustia WM (2015) Performance analysis of biogas stoves with variations of flame burner for the capacity of biogas 1 m3/day. ARPN J Eng Appl Sci 10:22Google Scholar
  96. Takeno T, Sato K (1979) An excess enthalpy theory. Combust Sci Technol 23:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tucker MF (2008) Farm digesters for small dairies in Vermont. Bio Cycle 49:44Google Scholar
  98. Van DDL, Weber JA (1994) Biogas production from animal manures: what is the potential?’ Industrial uses of agricultural materials, USDA/ERS outlook report IUS–4Google Scholar
  99. Vandevivere P, Baere LD, Verstraete W (2003) In: Mata-Alvarez J (ed) Types of anaerobic digesters for solid wastes, in biomethanization of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. IWA Publishing, Barcelona, pp 111–140Google Scholar
  100. Vavilin VA, Qu X, Mazéas L, Lemunier M, Duquennoi C, He P, Bouchez T (2008) Methanosarcina as the dominant aceticlastic methanogens during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of putrescible waste. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 94:593–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ver Eecke HC, Butterfield DA, Huber JA, Lilley MD, Olson EJ, Roe KK, Evans LJ, Merkel AY, Cantin HV, Holden JF (2012) Hydrogen-limited growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(34):13674–13679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Verma S (2002) Anaerobic digestion of biodegradable organics in municipal solid wastes. Department of Earth & Environmental Engineering Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science, Columbia UniversityGoogle Scholar
  103. Vögeli Y, Lohri CR, Gallardo A, Diener S, Zurbrügg C (2014) Anaerobic digestion of biowaste in developing countries: practical information and case studies. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), Dübendorf. ISBN:978-3-906484-58-7Google Scholar
  104. Wang X, Lu X, Li F, Yang G (2014) Effects of temperature and carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio on the performance of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure, chicken manure and rice straw: focusing on ammonia inhibition. PLoS One 9(5):e97265Google Scholar
  105. Weiland P (2010) Biogas production: current state and perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85(4):849–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Werner U, Stöhr U, Hees N (1989) Biogas plants in animal husbandry. A publication of the Deutsches Zentrum für Entwicklungstechnologien – GATE, a division of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbHGoogle Scholar
  107. Westerholm M, Roos S, Schnürer A (2010) Syntrophaceticusschinkii gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from a mesophilic anaerobic filter. FEMS Microbiol Lett 309:100–104Google Scholar
  108. Wijekoon KC, Visvanathan C, Abeynayaka A (2011) Effect of organic loading rate on VFA production, organic matter removal and microbial activity of a two stage thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor. Bioresour Technol 102(9):5353–5360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wirth R, Kovács E, Maròti G, Bagi Z, Rakhely G, Kovács KL (2012) Characterization of a biogas—Producing microbial community by short-read next generation DNA sequencing. Biotechnol Biofuels 5:41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhu W, Reich CI, Olsen GJ, Giometti CS, Yates JR (2004) Shotgun proteomics of Methanococcus jannaschii and insights into methanogenesis. J Proteome Res 3:538–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ziana Z, Rajesh P (2015) Production and Analysis of Biogas from Kitchen Waste. Int Res J Eng Technol 02:04Google Scholar
  112. Zupančič GD, Roš M (2003) Heat and energy requirements in thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion. Renew Energy 28(14):2255–2267CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seethalaksmi Elangovan
    • 1
  • Sathish Babu Soundra Pandian
    • 2
  • Geetha S. J.
    • 3
  • Sanket J. Joshi
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Sri Sankara Arts and Science CollegeAffiliated to University of MadrasChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Central Analytical and Applied Research Unit, College of ScienceSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  3. 3.Department of Biology, College of ScienceSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  4. 4.Oil & Gas Research CentreSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman

Personalised recommendations