Biofuels: Types and Process Overview

  • Pietro BartocciEmail author
  • Roman Tschentscher
  • Yunjun Yan
  • Haiping Yang
  • Gianni Bidini
  • Francesco Fantozzi
Part of the Clean Energy Production Technologies book series (CEPT)


The term biofuels refer mainly to fuels derived from biomass, which can be considered as plants and organic residues. In this chapter attention will be focused on liquid biofuels that can be used mainly for transportation. As reported in the IEA Technology Road Map for biofuels, presented in 2011, they can be divided in two main categories, based on the type of technologies used: conventional biofuels (sugar- and starch-based ethanol, conventional biodiesel, biogas) and advanced biofuels (cellulosic ethanol, hydrotreated vegetable oil, biomass-to-liquids, biosynthetic syngas, etc.). The production of these biofuels is object of big research efforts directed through process intensification and increase of the efficiency of biomass conversion into an energy vector. For this reason this chapter takes into account the production of first-generation biodiesel, first-generation bioethanol, second-generation biodiesel, second-generation bioethanol, and hydrotreated vegetable oils focusing on their market and the most importantly production techniques.


Biofuels Biodiesel Bioethanol Vegetable oils BTL Fischer-Tropsch 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pietro Bartocci
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roman Tschentscher
    • 2
  • Yunjun Yan
    • 3
  • Haiping Yang
    • 4
    • 5
  • Gianni Bidini
    • 1
  • Francesco Fantozzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EngineeringUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.SINTEF Energy ResearchOsloNorway
  3. 3.Key Lab of Molecular Biophysics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and TechnologyHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Coal CombustionHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  5. 5.China-EU Institute for Clean and Renewable EnergyHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

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