Advertisement

Choroidal Folds

  • Müller Gonçalves UriasEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Retina Atlas book series (RA)

Abstract

The fundus image of “peculiar lines in the choroid”—as Nettleship first described in 1884 (Squirrell 2006)—the so-called choroidal folds (Fig. 3.1) are anatomically undulations in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch’s membrane and the inner portion of the choriocapillaris—which may or may not be involved. If retina is involved, it is called chorioretinal folds. It differs from retinal folds since with retinal folds only neurosensory retina is involved and have a different presentation (Jaworski et al. 1999; Murdoch and Merriman 2002; Musetti et al. 2014).

References

  1. Atta HR, Byrne SF. The findings of standardized echography for choroidal folds. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106(9):1234–41.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1988.01060140394040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bullock JD, Egbert PR. Experimental choroidal folds. Am J Ophthalmol. 1974;78(4):618–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9394(14)76299-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ding C, Zeng J. Clinical study on hypotony following blunt ocular trauma. Int J Ophthalmol. 2012;5(6):771–3.  https://doi.org/10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.06.21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Friberg TR. The etiology of choroidal folds – a biomechanical explanation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1989;227(5):459–64.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02172899.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Jaworski A, Wolffsohn JS, Napper GA. Aetiology and management of choroidal folds. Clin Exp Optom. 1999;82(5):169–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lima-Gomez V, Cornejo-Mendoza AM. [Value of ocular hypotony as a predictor of open-globe injury in patients with ocular trauma]. Cir Cir. 2004;72(3):177–81.Google Scholar
  7. Murdoch D, Merriman M. Acquired hyperopia with choroidal folds. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;30(4):292–4.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-9071.2002.00536.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Musetti D, Nicolò M, Bagnis A, Traverso CE. Chorioretinal folds: associated disorders and a related maculopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;158(2):409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Newell FW. Choroidal folds. The seventh Harry Searls Gradle Memorial lecture. Am J Ophthalmol. 1973;75(6):930–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Shields CL, Pellegrini M, Ferenczy SR, Shields JA. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of intraocular tumors: from placid to seasick to rock and rolling topography – the 2013 Francesco Orzalesi Lecture. Retina. 2014;34(8):1495–512.  https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000000288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Squirrell D. Essentials in ophthalmology. Medical retina. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;34(2):175.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9071.2006.01176.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations