Advertisement

Toxoplasmosis

  • Eun Kyoung Lee
Chapter
Part of the Retina Atlas book series (RA)

Abstract

Ocular toxoplasmosis is one of the most common causes of posterior uveitis caused by an intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Holland 2003). Since the 1950s, ocular toxoplasmosis has been recognized as a form of inflammatory eye disease that follows the infection with the parasite, T. gondii (Wilder 1952). T. gondii is an ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite, which infects both humans and warm-blooded animals as a zoonotic pathogen widespread in nature (Holland 2003). It is estimated that approximately one third of the world’s population is chronically infected with T. gondii (Subauste et al. 2011). Ocular toxoplasmosis represents 50–85% of the posterior uveitis case in Brazil and about 25% of cases in the United States (Jones et al. 2001).

References

  1. Bosch-Driessen LE, Berendschot TT, Ongkosuwito JV, et al. Ocular toxoplasmosis: clinical features and prognosis of 154 patients. Ophthalmology. 2002a;109:869–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bosch-Driessen LH, Plaisier MB, Stilma JS, et al. Reactivations of ocular toxoplasmosis after cataract extraction. Ophthalmology. 2002b;109:41–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Butler NJ, Furtado JM, Winthrop KL, et al. Ocular toxoplasmosis II: clinical features, pathology and management. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;41:95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dodds EM. Toxoplasmosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2006;17:557–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eyles DE, Coleman N. Antibiotics in the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1953;2:64–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fekkar A, Bodaghi B, Touafek F, et al. Comparison of immunoblotting, calculation of the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient, and real-time PCR using aqueous humor samples for diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1965–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Freitas-Neto CA, Cao JH, Oréfice JL, et al. Increased submacular choroidal thickness in active, isolated, extramacular toxoplasmosis. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:222–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Garweg JG, de Groot-Mijnes JD, Montoya JG. Diagnostic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:255–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gilbert RE, Stanford MR. Is ocular toxoplasmosis caused by prenatal or postnatal infection? Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:224–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Glasner PD, Silveira C, Kruszon-Moran D, et al. An unusually high prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in southern Brazil. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992;114:136–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldenberg D, Goldstein M, Loewenstein A, et al. Vitreal, retinal, and choroidal findings in active and scarred toxoplasmosis lesions: a prospective study by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;251:2037–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holland GN. Ocular toxoplasmosis: a global reassessment. Part I: epidemiology and course of disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:973–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holland GN. Ocular toxoplasmosis: a global reassessment. Part II: disease manifestations and management. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:1–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Holland GN. Prospective, randomized trial of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole vs. pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis: discussion. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1882–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Holland GN, Lewis KG. An update on current practices in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:102–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hovakimyan A, Cunningham ET Jr. Ocular toxoplasmosis. Ophthalmol Clin N Am. 2002;15:327–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jones JL, Dubey JP. Waterborne toxoplasmosis-recent developments. Exp Parasitol. 2010;124:10–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Wilson M, et al. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: seroprevalence and risk factors. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;154:357–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kijlstra A, Jongert E. Control of the risk of human toxoplasmosis transmitted by meat. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1359–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lasave AF, Díaz-Llopis M, Muccioli C, et al. Intravitreal clindamycin and dexamethasone for zone 1 toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis at twenty-four months. Ophthalmology. 2010;117:1831–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de-la-Torre A, Stanford M, Curi A, et al. Therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:314–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. London NJ, Hovakimyan A, Cubillan LD, et al. Prevalence, clinical characteristics, and causes of vision loss in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2011;21:811–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marcolino PT, Silva DA, Leser PG, et al. Molecular markers in acute and chronic phases of human toxoplasmosis: determination of immunoglobulin G avidity by Western blotting. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2000;7:384–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Montoya JG, Liesenfeld O. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet. 2004;363:1965–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ongkosuwito JV, Bosch-Driessen EH, Kijlstra A, et al. Serologic evaluation of patients with primary and recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis for evidence of recent infection. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:407–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Park YH, Nam HW. Clinical features and treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Korean J Parasitol. 2013;51:393–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rothova A, Meenken C, Buitenhuis HJ, et al. Therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1993;115:517–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Silveira C, Vallochi AL, Rodrigues da Silva U, et al. Toxoplasma gondii in the peripheral blood of patients with acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95:396–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith JR, Cunningham ET Jr. Atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2002;13:387–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soheilian M, Sadoughi MM, Ghajarnia M, et al. Prospective randomized trial of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole versus pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1876–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Soheilian M, Ramezani A, Azimzadeh A, et al. Randomized trial of intravitreal clindamycin and dexamethasone versus pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and prednisolone in treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:134–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stanford MR, Gilbert RE. Treating ocular toxoplasmosis: current evidence. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:312–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stanford MR, See SE, Jones LV, et al. Antibiotics for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis: an evidence-based systematic review. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:926–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Subauste CS, Ajzenberg D, Kijlstra A. Review of the series “disease of the year 2011: toxoplasmosis” pathophysiology of toxoplasmosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilder HC. Toxoplasma chorioretinitis in adults. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1952;48:127–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eun Kyoung Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologySeoul National University HospitalSeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations