Scleritis is a severe, potentially sight-threatening form of ocular inflammation characterized by oedema of episcleral and scleral tissues with involvement of the deep episcleral vascular plexus (Beardsley et al. 2013; Artifoni et al. 2014) (Fig. 14.1). Scleritis may be associated with infection, systemic vasculitis, autoimmune disease or be idiopathic in nature. A careful history, physical and ocular examination and targeted investigations are essential as scleritis may be the presenting feature of a potentially life-threatening systemic vasculitis or infectious disease (Albini et al. 2005a; Beardsley et al. 2013). Scleritis remains a therapeutic challenge, particularly in patients with severe ocular inflammation, a systemic vasculitis or associated autoimmune disorder.
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