Advertisement

Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy

  • Dae Joong Ma
Chapter
Part of the Retina Atlas book series (RA)

Abstract

Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is a rare inflammatory eye disease affecting the outer retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choriocapillaris in mostly otherwise healthy adults between the ages of 20 and 50 years. It shows no clear gender preference. APMPPE was first described by Gass in 1968 in a series of three young female patients who presented with multiple large plaque-like lesions at the level of the RPE associated with temporary bilateral visual loss (Gass 1968). APMPPE is considered one of the “placoid diseases” together with serpiginous choroiditis (SC), relentless placoid chorioretinitis, and persistent placoid maculopathy due to the “placoid” nature of the lesions and similarities on fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) findings (Mirza and Jampol 2012).

References

  1. Abu El-Asrar AM, Aljazairy AH. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy with retinal vasculitis and papillitis. Eye (Lond). 2002;16:642–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alvi NP, Fishman GA. Granulomatous anterior uveitis presenting with acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Doc Ophthalmol. 1995;89:347–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annamalai R, Sudharshan S, Biswas J. Clinical features, investigations, management, and prognosis of Serpiginous Choroiditis. Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila). 2012;1:287–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Annesley WH, Tomer TL, Shields JA. Multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1973;76:511–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Battaglia Parodi M, Iacono P, Verbraak FD, et al. Antivascular endothelial growth factors for inflammatory chorioretinal disorders. Dev Ophthalmol. 2010;46:84–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Birnbaum AD, Blair MP, Tessler HH, et al. Subretinal fluid in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Retina. 2010;30:810–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowie EM, Sletten KR, Kayser DL, et al. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy and choroidal neovascularization. Retina. 2005;25:362–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brezin AP, Massin-Korobelnik P, Boudin M, et al. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy after hepatitis B vaccine. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113:297–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burke TR, Chu CJ, Salvatore S, et al. Application of OCT-angiography to characterise the evolution of chorioretinal lesions in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Eye (Lond). 2017;31:1399–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De Souza S, Aslanides IM, Altomare F. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy associated with retinal vasculitis, neovascularization and subhyaloid hemorrhage. Can J Ophthalmol. 1999;34:343–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Deutman AF, Oosterhuis JA, Boen-Tan TN, et al. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Pigment epitheliopathy of choriocapillaritis? Br J Ophthalmol. 1972;56:863–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. El-Markaby HS, Mohammed TH, El-Raggal TM. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy: role of TNF blocker in severe cases. Retina. 2012;32:2102–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fiore T, Iaccheri B, Androudi S, et al. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy: outcome and visual prognosis. Retina. 2009;29:994–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fitzpatrick PJ, Robertson DM. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1973;89:373–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Frohman LP, Klug R, Bielory L, et al. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy with unilateral retinal lesions and bilateral disk edema. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987;104:548–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garg S, Jampol LM. Macular serous detachment in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Retina. 2004;24:650–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gass JD. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1968;80:177–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hedges TR 3rd, Sinclair SH, Gragoudas ES. Evidence for vasculitis in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Ann Ophthalmol. 1979;11:539–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Heiferman MJ, Rahmani S, Jampol LM, et al. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy on optical coherence tomography angiography. Retina. 2017;37:2084–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Holt WS, Regan CD, Trempe C. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1976;81:403–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jyotirmay B, Jafferji SS, Sudharshan S, et al. Clinical profile, treatment, and visual outcome of ampiginous choroiditis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2010;18:46–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kinouchi R, Nishikawa N, Ishibazawa A, et al. Vascular rarefaction at the choriocapillaris in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy viewed on OCT angiography. Int Ophthalmol. 2017;37:733–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kirkham TH, Ffytche TJ, Sanders MD. Placoid pigment epitheliopathy with retinal vasculitis and papillitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1972;56:875–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lowes M. Placoid pigment epitheliopathy presenting as an anterior uveitis. A case report. Acta Ophthalmol. 1977;55:800–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mavrakanas N, Mendrinos E, Tabatabay C, et al. Intravitreal ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization secondary to acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010;88:e54–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mirza RG, Jampol LM. White spot syndromes and related diseases. In: Retina. 5th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc; 2012. p. 1337–80.Google Scholar
  27. Montero JA, Ruiz-Moreno JM, Fernandez-Munoz M. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011;19:48–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nussenblatt RB, Palestine AG, Whitcup SM. Uveitis: fundamentals and clinical practice, vol. 158. St. Louis: Mosby; 1996.Google Scholar
  29. O’Halloran HS, Berger JR, Lee WB, et al. Acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy and central nervous system involvement: nine new cases and a review of the literature. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:861–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Smith VC, Pokorny J, Ernest JT, et al. Visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;85:192–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Spaide RF. Autofluorescence imaging of acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Retina. 2006;26:479–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Sudharshan S, Ganesh SK, Biswas J. Current approach in the diagnosis and management of posterior uveitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010;58:29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thomas BC, Jacobi C, Korporal M, et al. Ocular outcome and frequency of neurological manifestations in patients with acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE). J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2012;2:125–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vianna R, van Egmond J, Priem H, et al. Natural history and visual outcome in patients with APMPPE. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 1993;248:73–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Williams DF, Mieler WF. Long-term follow-up of acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989;73:985–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wolf MD, Alward WLM, Folk JC. Long-term visual function in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109:800–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dae Joong Ma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyJeju National University HospitalJeju-siSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations