Nystagmus can be a physiological response or the sign of a serious underlying disease. It is an extremely complex spectrum of motility abnormalities, and both experience and skill are needed to decipher it completely. This chapter introduces the reader to the various forms of nystagmus, beginning with physiological nystagmus. Congenital nystagmus and its various forms are described in detail—the newer nomenclature for this entity has also been included. Acquired varieties of nystagmus such as downbeat and upbeat nystagmus and vestibular nystagmus are discussed along with other more rare variants such as see-saw nystagmus. Other related motility abnormalities such as opsoclonus, flutter, saccadic intrusions, and square-wave jerks are also explained. A brief account of the clinical examination including pertinent tests is described. Management of nystagmus has also been included.
KeywordsPhysiological nystagmus Infantile nystagmus syndrome Fusion maldevelopment nystagmus Spasmus nutans See-saw nystagmus PAN
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