Antibiotics and Microbial Antibiotic Resistance in Soil

  • Ali-Akbar Safari-SineganiEmail author
  • Mehdi Rashtbari
  • Nayereh Younessi
  • Babak Mashkoori


Induced antibiotic resistance in both clinical and nonclinical strains, caused by selective agents of antibiotic resistance genes, considered as one of the most important challenges of the present century. Evidences support increasing antibiotic resistance in the organic waste- treated soils which might affect soil biological and functional diversity. Manure, toxic compounds like insecticides, herbicides and chemical fertilizers which contain heavy metals are among the most important origins of antibiotic resistance in soil and dissemination of resistance determinants within ecosystem. Heavy metals could confer antibiotic resistance to microorganisms. Most of heavy metal resistance mechanisms are the same as antibiotic resistance. In most soils, heavy metal concentration is also much higher than antibiotic concentration. Therefore, it seems that the first option to control antibiotic resistance is the evaluating of resistance degree in specific habitats like soil, underground waters and manures which could participate in increasing the antibiotic resistance in the environment. Hence, the present paper aims to show the importance of antibiotics in soil and their impact on microbial functions and antibiotic resistance.


Antibiotic sorption Enzyme activity Antibiotic function Gene Transfer Heavy metals Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali-Akbar Safari-Sinegani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mehdi Rashtbari
    • 1
  • Nayereh Younessi
    • 1
  • Babak Mashkoori
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Soil Science, College of AgricultureBu-Ali Sina UniversityHamadanIran

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