Wild Edible Mushrooms of North West Himalaya: Their Nutritional, Nutraceutical, and Sociobiological Aspects

  • N. S. Atri
  • Y. P. Sharma
  • Sanjeev Kumar
  • Mridu


North West Himalayan region is quite rich in mushroom microbiota. Many of their species are edible, few are hallucinogenic, and some are poisonous. The edible ones are being regularly collected during monsoon season year after year from the nearby forested areas by the local inhabitants mostly for their personal consumption as well as for trading so as to earn some additional money for meeting their day-to-day expenditure. Several such species either belong to ascomycetous fungi (e.g., Tuber P. Micheli ex F.H. Wigg., Morchella Dill. ex Pers., Geopora Harkn., etc.) or agaricomycetous fungi (e.g., Clavaria L., Ramaria Fr. ex Bonord., Hericium Pers., Sparassis Fr., Cantharellus Juss., Russula Pers., Lactarius Pers., Volvariella Speg., Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Kumm., Lentinus Fr., Amanita Pers., Termitomyces R. Heim, Macrolepiota Singer, Lycoperdon Pers., Boletus L., etc.). For some of them, especially morels, there is an organized trade syndicate which works right from Jammu and Kashmir to Uttarakhand in the North West Himalaya. Many of these mushrooms are being evaluated for their nutritional and nutraceutical constituents. The results of the analysis have revealed these mushrooms to be quite rich in proteins, carbohydrate, and important minerals, while their fat content is substantially low making them a low-energy or low-calorie functional food. From nutraceutical point of view, it has been found that these are quite rich in vitamins, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, carotenes, lycopenes, alkaloids, and a number of specific bioactive metabolites with extreme therapeutic relevance. Because of their significance in human welfare and ecosystem maintenance and replenishment, mushrooms are rightly treated as special creation of God in the nature’s treasure.


Edible mushrooms Evaluation Health food Nutraceutical Trade Sociobiology 



Thanks are due to the Head of the Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala, and the Head of the Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu, for providing laboratory facilities to the respective authors. Financial support from UGC under SAP-II program and DST under FIST program to the Department of Botany, Punjabi University, Patiala, is gratefully acknowledged. YPS wishes to gratefully acknowledge the financial assistance received from UGC-MRP [F.No. 43-124/2014 (SR)]. Mridu is grateful to UGC for the grant of financial assistance under BSR fellowship scheme.


  1. Abraham SP, Kaul TN (1990) Larger fungi from Kashmir: IV. Folia Geobotanica Phytotaxonomica 25:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abraham SP, Kachroo JL, Kaul TN (1980) Fleshy fungi of Gulmarg forests-I. Kavaka 8:29–39Google Scholar
  3. Abraham SP, Kaul TN, Kachroo JL (1984) Larger fungi from Kashmir II. Kavaka 12(1):41–48Google Scholar
  4. Adejumo TO, Awosanya OB (2005) Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species from South Western Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 4(10):1084–1088Google Scholar
  5. Ahmad S (1942) Gasteromycetes of N. W. Himalayas. II. J Indian Bot Soc 21:283–293Google Scholar
  6. Aletor VA, Aladetimi OO (1995) Compositional studies on edible tropical species of mushrooms. Food Chem 54(3):265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alofe FV, Odeyemi O, Oke OL (1996) Three edible wild mushrooms from Nigeria: Their proximate and mineral composition. Plant Food Hum Nutr 49(1):63–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alves MJ, Ferreira ICFR, Dias J, Teixeira V, Martins A, Pintado M (2012) A review on antimicrobial activity of mushroom (Basidiomycetes) extracts and isolated compounds. Planta Med 78(16):1707–1718CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Arora D (1986) Mushrooms demystified. A comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Ten Speed Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  10. Atri NS, Lata (2013) Studies for culturing and cultivation of Lentinus cladopus Lv. Mycosphere 4(4):675–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Atri NS, Kaur A, Kour H (2005) Systematics and sociobiology of Termitophilous mushrooms from Punjab. In: Dargan JS, Atri NS, Dhingra GS (eds) The fungi-diversity and conservation in India. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, pp 159–182Google Scholar
  12. Atri NS, Kour H, Kaur A, Saini MK (2009) Mushroom wealth of North Eastern Punjab-Their ecology, conservation and screening. In: Atri NS, Gupta RC, Saggoo MIS, Singhal VK (eds) Germplasm diversity-algae, fungi & lichens. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, pp 59–74Google Scholar
  13. Atri NS, Saini SS, Gupta AK, Kaur A, Kour H, Saini SS (2010) Documentation of wild edible mushrooms and their seasonal availability in Punjab. In: Mukerji KG, Manoharachary C (eds) Taxonomy and ecology of Indian fungi. I. K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 161–169Google Scholar
  14. Atri NS, Kumari D, Sharma SK (2011) Studies on the effect of media and substrate on the growth and yield of Lentinusconnatus. Mushroom Res 20(1):55–62Google Scholar
  15. Atri NS, Kumari B, Upadhyay RC, Sharma S (2012a) Nutritional and sociobiological aspects of culinary–medicinal termitophilous mushrooms from North India. Int J Med Mush 14(5):471–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Atri NS, Sharma SK, Joshi R, Ashu G, Gulati A (2012b) Amino acid composition of five wild Pleurotus species chosen from North West India. Eur J Biol Sci 4(1):31–34Google Scholar
  17. Atri NS, Sharma SK, Joshi R, Ashu G, Gulati A (2013) Nutritional and nutraceutical composition of five wild culinary-medicinal species of genus Pleurotus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Northwest India. Int J Med Mushroom 15(1):49–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Atri NS, Kumari B, Kumar S, Upadhyay RC, Ashu G, Lata, Gulati A (2016) Nutritional profile of wild edible mushrooms of India. In: Deshmukh SK, Misra JK, Tiwari JP, Papp T (eds) Fungi: Applications and Management strategies. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, pp 372–395Google Scholar
  19. Atri NS, Kaur M, Sharma S (2017) Characterization of Lamellate mushrooms – an appraisal. In: Satyanarayana T, Deshmukh S, Johri BN (eds) Developments in fungal biology and applied mycology. Springer, Singapore, pp 471–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Atri NS, Singh R, Mridu, Lata, Upadhyay RC (2018) Taxonomic and domestication studies on Lentinus squarrosulus. In: Sridhar KR, Deshmukh SK (eds) Advances in macrofungi: diversity, ecology and biotechnology. CRC Press, London/Washington, DC. (in press)Google Scholar
  21. Bahl N (1983) Medicinal value of edible fungi. In: Kaul, Kapur (eds) Proceeding of the international conference on science and cultivation technology of edible fungi, pp 204–209Google Scholar
  22. Bano Z, Rajarathanam S (1982) Pleurotus mushrooms as a nutritious food. In: Chang ST, Quimio TH (eds) Tropical mushrooms – biological nature and cultivation methods. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, pp 363–382Google Scholar
  23. Bano Z, Nagaraja KV, Vibhakar S, Kapur OP (1981) Mineral and heavy metal contents in the sporophores of Pleurotus species. Mushroom Newsl Trop 2(2):3Google Scholar
  24. Barros L, Cruz T, Baptista P, Estevinho LE, Ferreira ICFR (2008) Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals. Food Chem Toxicol 46:2742–2747CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Barroso G, Sonnenberg AS, Van Griensven LJ, Labarere J (2000) Molecular cloning of widely distributed microsatellite core sequence from the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Fungal Genet Biol 31:115–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Batra LR (1983) Edible Discomycetes and Gasteromycetes of Afganistan, Pakistan and North-Western India. Biologia (Lahore) 29:293–304Google Scholar
  27. Beig MA, Dar GH, Khan NA, Ganai NA (2011) Seasonal production of epigeal fungal sporocarps in mixed and pure fir (Abiespindrow) stands in Kashmir forests. J Agric Technol 7(5):1375–1387Google Scholar
  28. Bernheimer AW, Avigad LS (1979) A cytolytic protein from the edible mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. Biochem Biophys Acta 585:451–461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bilgrami KS, Jamaluddin, Rizwi AM (1979) Fungi of India. Part-I: Lists and references. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  30. Bobek P, Galbavy S (1999) Collection of chemical properties of popular wild edible mushrooms. J Hortic For 43(5):339–346Google Scholar
  31. Bobek P, Ozdin O, Mikus M (1995) Dietary oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) accelerates cholesterol turnover in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Physiol Res 44(5):287–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Bose SR, Bose AB (1940) An account of edible mushrooms of India. Sci Cult 6:141–149Google Scholar
  33. Breene WM (1990) Nutritional and medicinal value of specialty mushrooms. J Food Prot 53(10):883–894CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Brower V (1988) Nutraceuticals: poised for a healthy slice of the healthcare market. Nat Biotechnol 16:728–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Castle AJ, Horgen PA, Anderson JB (1987) Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the mushrooms Agaricus brunnescens and Agaricus bitorquis. Appl Environ Microbiol 53:816–822PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Chadha KL, Sharma SR (1995) Mushroom research in India. In: Chadha KL, Sharma SR (eds) Advances in horticulture, vol 13. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  37. Champion HG, Seth SK (1968) A revised survey of the forest types of India. Manger Publications, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  38. Chang ST, Buswell JA (1996) Mushroom nutraceuticals. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:473–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Chang ST, Miles PG (2004) Culture preservation. In: Chang ST, Miles PG (eds) Mushrooms cultivation, nutritional value, medicinal effect and environmental impact. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chauhan J, Negi AK, Rajasekaran A, Pala NA (2014) Wild edible macro-fungi- A source of supplementary food in Kinnaur District, Himachal Pradesh, India. J Med Plants Stud 2(1):40–44Google Scholar
  41. Cheung LM, Cheung PCK (2005) Mushroom extracts with antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation. Food Chem 89:403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chiu SW, Chen MJ, Chang ST (1995) Differentiating homothallic Volvariella mushrooms by RFLPs and AP-PCR. Mycol Res 99:333–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chopra RN, Chopra IC (1955) A review of work on Indian medicinal plants, ICMR, New Delhi (Special report series no. 30), pp 263 + 58Google Scholar
  44. Cooke MC (1879) Some exotic fungi. Grev 7:94–96Google Scholar
  45. Crisan EW, Sands A (1978) A nutritional value. In: Chang ST, Hayes WA (eds) The biology and cultivation of edible mushrooms. Academic, New York, pp 172–189Google Scholar
  46. Daba AS, Ezeronye OU (2003) Anti-cancer effect of polysaccharides isolated from higher basidiomycetes mushrooms. Afr J Biotechnol 2(12):672–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Danell E, Eaker D (1992) Amino acid and total protein content of the edible mushroom Cantharellus cibarius Fries. J Sci Food Agric 60(3):333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Das RP (2001) On the identification of a Vedic plant. In: Meulenbeld GJ, Wujastyk D (eds) Studies on Indian medical history. Motilal Banarasidass Publishers Private Limited, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  49. Dorjey K, Kumar S, Sharma YP (2013) Four Helvella species from the Cold desert of Leh, Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir). J Threat Taxa 5(5):3981–3984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dorjey K, Kumar S, Sharma YP (2016) Desert puffballs from Ladakh trans-Himalaya (J&K), India – the genus Bovista and Calvatia. Indian Phytopathol 69:87–92Google Scholar
  51. Dorjey K, Kumar S, Sharma YP (2017) Eight Coprinoid Macromycetes (Agaricaceae & Psathyrellace) from Trans- Himalayan Region of Ladakh (J&K), India. Indian J For 40(1):47–61Google Scholar
  52. Drewnowska M, Falandysz J (2015) Investigation on mineral composition and accumulation by popular edible mushroom common chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:9–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dutta AK, Acharya K (2014) Traditional and ethno-medicinal knowledge of mushrooms in West Bengal, India. Asian J Pharm Asian Res 7(4):36–41Google Scholar
  54. Ferreira ICFR, Barros L, Abreu RMV (2009) Antioxidants in wild mushrooms. Curr Med Chem 16:1543–1560CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Finimundy TC, Gambato G, Fontana R, Camassola M, Salvador M, Moura S, Hess J, Henriques JA, Dillon AJ, Roesch-Ely M (2013) Aqueous extracts of Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibit high antioxidant capability and promising in vitro antitumor activity. Nutr Res 33:76–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fries E (1821) Systema mycologicum, Vol. 1. Greifswald grass rusts based on rDNA sequence analysis. Mycologia 85:401–441Google Scholar
  57. Fukushima NS, Tsuda H (1985) Carcinogenity and modification of the carcinogenic response by BHA, BHT and other antioxidants. Crit Rev Toxicol 15:109–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ganguly C, Das S (1994) Plant lectins as inhibitors of tumour growth and modulators of host immune response. Chemotherapy 40:272–278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Giri S, Biswas G, Pradhan P, Mandal SC, Acharya K (2012) Antimicrobial activities of basidiocarps of wild edible mushrooms of West Bengal, India. Int J Pharm Tech Res 4(4):1554–1560Google Scholar
  60. Gulati A, Atri NS, Sharma SK, Sharma BM (2011) Nutritional studies on five wild Lentinus species from North-West India. World J Dairy Food Sci 6(2):140–145Google Scholar
  61. Gupta S, Singh SP (1991) Nutritive value of mushroom Podaxis pistillaris. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 21(3):273–276Google Scholar
  62. Gupta KK, Agarwala RK, Kumar S, Seth PK (1974) Gasteromycetes of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Phytopathol 27:45–48Google Scholar
  63. Hall IR, Lyon AJE, Wang Y, Sinclair L (1998a) Ectomycorrhizal fungi with edible fruiting bodies Boletus edulis. Econ Bot 52(1):44–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hall IR, Zambonelli A, Primavera F (1998b) Ectomycorrhizal fungi with edible fruiting bodies Tubermagnatum, Tuberaceae. Econ Bot 52:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hawksworth DL (2001) Mushrooms: the extent of the unexplored potential. Int J Med Mushrooms 3:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hawksworth DL (2012) Global species number of fungi: are tropical studies and molecular approaches contributing to a more robust estimate? Biodivers Conserv 21:2425–2433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hesler IR, Smith AH (1979) North American species of Lactarius. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  68. Hirano R, Sasamoto W, Matsumoto A, Itakura H, Igarashi O, Kondo K (2001) Antioxidant ability of various flavonoids against DPPH radicals and LDL oxidation. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 47:357–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ikekawa T (2001) Benificial effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms on healthcare. Int J Med Mushrooms 3:291–298Google Scholar
  70. Jonathan SG, Fasidi IO (2003) Antimicrobial activities of two Nigerian edible macro-fungi Lycoperdon pusilum (Bat. Ex) and Lycoperdon gigantum (Pers). Afr J Biomed Res 6:85–90Google Scholar
  71. Jordan P, Wheeler S (1995) The ultimate mushroom book. Anness Publishing Limited, Hermes House, LondonGoogle Scholar
  72. Kalac P (2009) Chemical composition and nutritional value of European species of wild growing mushrooms: a review. Food Chem 113:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kalac P (2016) Edible mushrooms: chemical composition and nutritional value. Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  74. Kaul TN (1971) Mushroom research at Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu. In: 2nd international symposium on plant pathology, New Delhi, p 136Google Scholar
  75. Kaul TN (1975) Studies on genus Morchella in Jammu and Kashmir – I. soil composition in relation to carpophore development. Bull Bot Soc Bengal 29:127–134Google Scholar
  76. Kaul TN (1978) Nutritive value of some edible Morchellaceae. Ind J Mushroom 4:26–34Google Scholar
  77. Kaul TN, Kachroo JL (1974) Common edible mushrooms of Jammu and Kashmir. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 71(1):26–31Google Scholar
  78. Kaur M, Atri NS, Singh Y (2008) New records of genus Amanita Pers. section Vaginatae (Fr.) Quél. from India. Mushroom Res 17(2):51–54Google Scholar
  79. Khush RS, Becker E, Wach M (1992) DNA amplification polymorphisms of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Appl Environ Microbiol 58:2971–2977PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. King TA (1993) Mushrooms, the ultimate health food but little research in U. S to prove it. Mushroom News 41:29–46Google Scholar
  81. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008) Dictionary of the fungi, 10th edn. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  82. Kotwal M, Kumar S, Sharma YP (2014) Morchellaceae from Jammu region of North West Himalaya. Mushroom Res 23:15–25Google Scholar
  83. Kühner R (1980) Les Hymenomycetes agaricoides. Etude gerenale et classification. Bull Mens Soc Linn Lyon 49:1027Google Scholar
  84. Kumar S, Sharma YP (2009) Some potential wild edible macrofungi of Jammu Province (Jammu and Kashmir), India. Indian J For 32:113–118Google Scholar
  85. Kumar S, Sharma YP (2011) Diversity of wild mushrooms from Jammu and Kashmir (India). In: Savoie JM, Oriol MF, Largeteau M, Barroso G (eds) Proceedings of the 7th international conference on mushroom biology and mushroom products. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Arcachon, p 577Google Scholar
  86. Kumar S, Sharma YP (2018) Some noteworthy taxa of wild macrofungi from North-West Himalayas, Jammu & Kashmir. India, Indian Journal of Mushrooms. (in press)Google Scholar
  87. Kumar S, Kour H, Sharma YP (2014) A contribution to the Agarics of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Mushroom Res 23(1):1–4Google Scholar
  88. Kumari B, Atri NS (2012) Evaluation of alkaloids of North Indian wild edible termitophilous mushrooms. Libyan Agric Res Centre J Int 3(5):229–232Google Scholar
  89. Kumari B, Atri NS (2014) Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of wild edible macrolepiotoid mushrooms of north India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 6(2):200–204Google Scholar
  90. Kumari B, Upadhyay RC, Atri NS (2013) Evaluation of nutraceutical components and antioxidant potential of North Indian wild culinary-medicinal termitophilous mushrooms. Indian J Med Mushroom 15(2):189–195Google Scholar
  91. Lakhanpal TN (1994) Prospects of mushrooms from the wild. In: Nair MC (ed) Advances in mushroom biotechnology. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 15–22Google Scholar
  92. Lakhanpal TN (2002) Diversity of mushroom germplasm in NW Himalaya. In: Vij SP, Kondo K, Sharma ML, Gupta A (eds) Plant genetic diversity: exploration, evaluation, conservation. Affiliated East West Press Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  93. Lalotra P, Bala P, Kumar S, Sharma YP (2016) Biochemical characterization of some wild edible mushrooms from Jammu and Kashmir. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India, Section B: Biological Sciences, pp 2250–1746. Scholar
  94. Li GSF, Chang ST (1982) Nutritive value of Volvariella volvacea. In: Chang ST, Quimio TH (eds) Tropical mushrooms – biological nature and cultivation methods. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong, pp 199–219Google Scholar
  95. Lin JY, Teng TW, Shi GY, Teng TC (1973) Isolation of a new cardiotoxic protein from edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea. Nature 246:524–525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lincoff G, Mitchell MD (1997) Toxic and hallucinogic mushroom poisoning. Van Nostrant Reinhold Coy., A, New York, p 2Google Scholar
  97. Manjunathan J, Subbulakshmi N, Shanmugapriya R, Kaviyarasan V (2011) Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species from South India. Int J Biodivers Conserv 3(8):386–388Google Scholar
  98. Manzi I, Gambelli L, Mariconi S, Vivanti V, Pizzoferrato I (1999) Nutrients in edible mushrooms: an interspecies comparative study. Food Chem 65:477–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mao XL (2000) The macro fungi of China. Henan Science and Technology Press, Zhengzau. (Chinese)Google Scholar
  100. Mehta KB (1990) Mushroom recipes. National Centre for Mushroom Research and Training (ICAR), Chambaghat, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  101. Moore D, Chiu SW (2001) Filamentous fungi as food. In: Pointing SB, Hyde D (eds) Exploitation of filamentous fungi. Fungal Diversity Press, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  102. Morse EE (1933) A study of the genus Podaxis. Mycologia 25:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mortimer PE, Karunarathna SC, Li Q, Gui H, Yang X, Yang X, He J, Ye L, Guo J, Li H, Sysouphanthong P, Zhou D, Xu J, Hyde KD (2012) Prized edible Asian mushrooms: ecology, conservation and sustainability. Fungal Divers 56:31–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mridu, Atri NS (2015) Podaxis pistillaris – a common wild edible mushroom from Haryana (India) and its sociobiology. Kavaka 44:34–37Google Scholar
  105. Mridu, Atri NS (2017) Nutritional and nutraceutical characterization of three wild edible mushrooms from Haryana, India. Mycosphere 8(8):1035–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mukhopadhyay R, Guha AK (2015) A comprehensive analysis of the nutritional quality of edible mushroom Pleurotussajor-caju grown in deproteinized whey medium. LWT Food Sci Technol 61(2):339–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Nanba H (1993) Maitake mushroom the king mushroom. Mushroom News 41:22–25Google Scholar
  108. Nwanze PI, Jatto W, Oranusi S, Josiah SJ (2006) Proximate analysis of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and Psathyrella atroumbonata Pegler. Afr J Biotechnol 5(4):366–368Google Scholar
  109. Ogundana SK, Fagade OE (1982) Nutritive value of some Nigerian edible mushrooms. Food Chem 8:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pala SA, Wani AH, Mir RA (2012) Diversity of macrofungal genus Russula and Amanita in Hirpora Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern Kashmir Himalayas. Biodiversitas 13:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Panwar C, Purohit DK (2002) Antimicrobial activities of Podaxis pistillaris and Phallorinia inquinans against Pseudomonas aeriginosa and Proteus mirabilis. Mushroom Res 11(1):43–44Google Scholar
  112. Pavithra M, Greeshma AA, Karun NC, Sridhar KR (2015) Observations on the Astraeus spp. of Southwestern India. Mycosphere 6(4):421–432Google Scholar
  113. Pegler DN (1977) A preliminary agaric flora of East Africa. Kew Bull A ddi Ser 6 Her Majesty Stationary Office 615Google Scholar
  114. Pegler DN, Piearce GD (1980) The edible mushrooms of Zambia. Kew Bull 35(3):477–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Prasad P, Chauhan K, Kandari LS, Maikhuri RK, Purohit A, Bhatt RP, Rao KS (2002) Morchella esculenta (Guchhi): need for scientific intervention for its cultivation in Central Himalaya. Curr Sci 82(9):1098–1100Google Scholar
  116. Puri GS (1960) Indian forest ecology. Oxford and IBH, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  117. Purkayastha RP, Chandra A (1976) Amino acid compostion of the protein of the some edible mushrooms grown in synthetic medium. J Food Sci Technol 13:86–89Google Scholar
  118. Purkayastha RP, Chandra A (1985) Manual of Indian edible mushrooms. Jagmander Book Agency, New Delhi, p 267Google Scholar
  119. Puttaraju NG, Venkateshaiah SU, Dharmesh SM, Somasundaram R (2006) Antioxidant activity of indigenous edible mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem 54:9764–9772CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rai RD, Arumuganathan T (2005) Nutritive value of mushrooms. In: Proceeding of summer school on emerging areas of mushroom research and products. National Research Centre for Mushroom, Chambaghat, Solan, pp 20–27Google Scholar
  121. Ramesh C, Pattar MG (2010) Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of Western Ghats of Karnataka, India. Pharm Res 2(2):107–112Google Scholar
  122. Ramirez L, Muez V, Alfonso M, Garcia Barrenechea A, Alfonso L, Pisabarro AG (2001) Use of molecular markers to differentiate between commercial strains of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. EMS Microbiology Letters 198:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ray M, Doshi N, Alag N, Sreedhar R (2011) A contribution to the ongoing nation–wide climate studies vulnerability in various ecoregions of India. Indian Network on Ethics and Climate Change (INECC)Google Scholar
  124. Reis FS, Barros L, Martins A, Ferreira ICFR (2012) Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study. Food Chem Toxicol 50:191–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Royse DJ, Baars J, Tan Q (2017) Current overview of mushroom production in the world. In: Zied DC, Pardo-Gimenez A (eds) Edible and medicinal mushrooms: technology and applications. Wiley, Hoboken, p 592Google Scholar
  126. Sagar A, Chauhan A, Seghal AK (2017) Ethnobotanical study of some wild mushrooms of tribal district Kannaur of Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Mushroom 35(II):1–9Google Scholar
  127. Sage HJ, Vazquez J (1967) Studies on a hemagglutination from the mushroom Agaricus compestris. J Biol Chem 242:120–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Sarikurkcu C, Tepe B, Yamac M (2008) Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of four edible mushrooms from the Central Anatolia, Eskisehir, Turkey: Lactarius deterrimus, Suillus collitinus, Boletus edulis, Xerocomus chrysenteron. Bioresour Technol 99:6651–6655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Sarma TC, Sarma I, Patiri BN (2010) Wild edible mushrooms used by some ethnic tribes of Western Assam. The Bioscan Scientific Books, Germany 3:613–625Google Scholar
  130. Semwal KC, Stephenson SL, Bhatt VK, Bhatt RP (2014) Edible mushrooms of the Northwestern Himalaya, India: a study of indigenous knowledge, distribution and diversity. Mycosphere 5(3):440–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sharma SK, Atri NS (2014) Nutraceutical composition of wild species of genus Lentinus Fr. from Northern India. CREAM 4(1):22–32. Scholar
  132. Sharma SK, Atri NS, Sharma BM, Gulati A (2013) Comparative study of Alkaloid composition in ten wild fungal species from North West India. African Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences 5(3):121–125Google Scholar
  133. Sharma SK, Atri NS, Thakur R, Gulati A (2014) Taxonomy and compositional analysis of two new for science medicinal mushroom taxa from India. Int J Med Mushroom 16(6):593–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sharma S, Atri NS, Kaur M, Verma B (2017) Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of some wild edible Russulaceous mushrooms from North West Himalayas. Kavaka 48(2):41–46Google Scholar
  135. Sheikh PA, Dar GH, Dar WA, Shah S, Bhat KA, Kousar S (2015) Chemical composition and anti-oxidant activities of some edible mushrooms of Western Himalayas of India. Vegetos 28:124–133Google Scholar
  136. Singer R (1986) The Agaricales in modern taxonomy, 4th edn. Sven Koeiltz, KoenigsteinGoogle Scholar
  137. Singh U, Bhatt RP, Stephenson SL, Uniyal P, Mehmood T (2017) Wild edible mushrooms from high elevations in the Garhwal Himalaya–II. Curr Res Environ Appl Mycol 7(3):208–226. Scholar
  138. Sohi HS, Kumar S, Seth PK (1964) Some interesting fleshy fungi from Himanchal Pradesh. Indian Phytopath. 17:317–322Google Scholar
  139. Sohi HS, Kumar S, Seth PK (1965) Some interesting fleshy fungi from Himachal Pradesh. J Indian Bot Soc 54:69–73Google Scholar
  140. Sonnenberg ASM, Van Loon PCC, Van Griensven LJLD (1991) The occurrence of mitochondrial genotypes and inheritance of mitochondria in the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Mushroom Sci 13:85–92Google Scholar
  141. Stone WL, Leclair I, Ponder T, Bagss G, Barret-Reis B (2003) Infants discriminate between natural and synthetic vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr 77:899–906CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sullivan R, Smith JE, Rowan NJ (2006) Medicinal mushrooms and cancertherapy: translating a traditional practice into Western medicine. Perspect Biol Med 49:159–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sysouphanthong P, Thongkantha S, Zhao R, Soytong K, Hyde KD (2010) Mushroom diversity in sustainable shade tea forest and the effect of fire damage. Biodivers Conserv 19(5):1401–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tilak T, Rao R (1968) Second Supplement to the fungi of India. Aurangabad Printers. Aurangabad, p 312Google Scholar
  145. Trudell S, Ammirati J (2009) Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Timber Press Field Guide, Portland, pp 1–338Google Scholar
  146. Upadhyay RC, Semwal KC, Tripathi A, Kumari D (2008) Three taxa of Amanita hemibapha from North-Western Himalaya (India). Mushroom Res 17(1):1–7Google Scholar
  147. Valverde ME, Hernández-Pérez T, Paredes-López O (2015) Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life. Int J Microbiol:376–387Google Scholar
  148. Vishwakarma MP, Bhatt RP, Joshi S (2012) Macrofungal diversity in moist temperate forests of Garhwal Himalaya. Indian J Sci Technol 5(1):1928–1932Google Scholar
  149. Wanchoo PN (2000) Hindkush Himalayas. In: Horticulture in Himalayas: principles and practices. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, pp 1–57Google Scholar
  150. Wang HX, Ng TB, Liu WK, Ooi VEC, Chang ST (1995) Isolation and characterization of two distinct lectins with antiproliferative activity from the cultured mycelium of the edible mushroom Tricholomamongolicum. Int J Pept Protein Res 46:508–513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Wang HX, Ooi VEC, Ng TB, Liu WK, Chang ST (1996) Hypotensive and vasorelaxing activities of a lectin from edible mushroom Tricholomamongolicum. Pharmacol Toxicol 79:318–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Wang HX, Ng TB, Ooi VEC, Liu WK, Chang ST (1997) Action of lectins from the mushroom Tricholoma mongolicum on macrophages, splenocytes and life-span in sarcoma-bearing mice. Anticancer Res 17:415–420Google Scholar
  153. Wani AH, Boda RH, Nisa T, Peer LA (2010a) Potential antioxidant activity of some mushrooms growing in Kashmir valley. Mycopathology 8:71–75Google Scholar
  154. Wani BA, Bodha RH, Wani AH (2010b) Nutritional and medicinal importance of mushrooms. J Med Plant Res 4(24):2598–2604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Waraitch KS (1976) The genus Morchella in India. Kavaka 4:69–76Google Scholar
  156. Wasser SP (2011) Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89:1323–1332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Wasser SP, Weis AL (1999) Medicinal properties of substances occurring in higher basidiomycetes mushrooms: current perspectives (review). Int J Med Mushrooms 1:31–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Watling R, Gregory NM (1980) Larger fungi from Kashmir. Nova Hedwigia 32:493–564Google Scholar
  159. Wu JY, Chen CH, Chang WH, Chung KT, Liu YW, Lu FJ, Chen CH (2011) Anti-cancer effects of protein extracts from Calvatia lilacina, Pleurotus ostreatus and Volvariella volvacea. Evid Based Compl Altern Med. ID 982368, 10 pGoogle Scholar
  160. Yangdol R, Kumar S, Sharma YP (2014) A new edible variety of Laetiporus sulphureus from the cold desert of Ladakh. J Mycol Plant Pathol 44:463–465Google Scholar
  161. Yildiz O, Can Z, Laghari AQ, Sahin H, Malkoe M (2015) Wild edible mushrooms as a natural source of phenolics and antioxidants. J Food Biochem 39:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Zambino PJ, Szabo LJ (1993) Phylogenetic relationships of selected cereal and grass rusts base on rDna sequence analysis. Mycologia 85(3):401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Zeisel SH (1999) Regulation of nutraceuticals. Science 285:1853–1855CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Zhang Y, Geng W, Shen Y, Wang Y, Dai YC (2014) Edible mushroom cultivation for food security and rural development in China: bio-innovation, technological dissemination and marketing. Sustainability 6(5):2961–2973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zheng S, Li C, Ng TB, Wang HX (2007) lectin with mitogenic activity from the edible wild mushroom Boletus edulis. Process Biochem 42(12):1620–1624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Zied DC, Pardo-Gimenez A (2017) Edible and medicinal mushrooms: technology and applications. Wiley, Hoboken, p 592Google Scholar
  167. Zjawiony JK (2004) Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi. J Nat Prod 67:300–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. S. Atri
    • 1
  • Y. P. Sharma
    • 2
  • Sanjeev Kumar
    • 2
  • Mridu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyPunjabi UniversityPatialaIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of JammuJammuIndia

Personalised recommendations