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Infectious Lung Diseases and Endogenous Oxidative Stress

  • Kasturi Sarkar
  • Parames C. SilEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Lower respiratory tract infections, according to the World Health Organization, account for nearly one third of all deaths from infectious diseases. They account for approximately 4 million deaths annually including children and adults and provide a greater disease burden than HIV and malaria. Among the common respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, influenza, and pneumonia are very common and can be life threatening if not treated properly. The causative agent of tuberculosis is the slow-growing bacilli Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while the causative agent of influenza is a segmented genome RNA virus. Pneumonia can be caused by a number of different microorganisms like bacteria, virus, and mycoplasma. In case of the entry of a pathogen in our body, the immune system gets activated, and the phagocytic cells try to eliminate it by generating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) inside the phagosome. These reactive species or respiratory bursts are sufficient to eliminate most of the pathogens, except a few. M. tuberculosis is one such microorganism that has evolved mechanisms to escape this respiratory burst-mediated killing and thus survive and grow inside the macrophages. Infection with M. tuberculosis leads to the destruction of macrophages and release of cytokines, which lead to prolonged immune activation and oxidative stress. In some cases, the bacilli remain dormant inside macrophages for a long time. Flu viruses infect the epithelial cells present in respiratory tract, and the infection site is dependent on the hemagglutinin protein present on their capsid. Destruction of epithelial cells promotes secretion of mucus and activation of immune system leading to the oxidative damage. Community-acquired pneumonia is more serious and difficult to treat. In all these infections, ROS/RNS are developed as a defense mechanism against the pathogen. Persistence of the pathogen for a long time would lead to the uncontrolled production of ROS/RNS which will lead to oxidative stress and tissue damage to the host. Administration of antioxidants along with conventional treatments can be useful in the elimination of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

Keywords

Tuberculosis Influenza Pneumonia Macrophage Neutrophil Reactive oxygen species Reactive nitrogen species Respiratory burst Oxidative stress Antioxidants 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologySt. Xavier’s CollegeKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Division of Molecular MedicineBose InstituteKolkataIndia

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