Child Count Based Load Balancing in Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (Ch-LBRPL)

  • A. SebastianEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 141)


Several sensing devices with actuating capabilities communicate with each other which are connected to the internet that enable variety of application such as smart city, smart building, smart agriculture, etc. form Internet of Things (IoT). Resource constraints are part of IoT networks. These devices and networks are low on energy, processing power, memory and data rate. In 2012, IETF ROLL working group published in RFC 6550, which specifies Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). RPL was designed for efficient and reliable data collection in low power and lossy networks. RPL based network is constructed using Destination Oriented Acyclic graph (DODAG) for data forwarding and network management. Load balancing in RPL is an important concern. Due to uneven deployment of sensor nodes in large areas, and the heterogeneous traffic patterns in the network, some sensor nodes may have much heavier workload in terms of packet forwarding than others. Such unbalanced workload distribution will result in bottle neck of parent node, frequent parent switching, sensor nodes quickly exhausting their energy, and shorten the overall network lifetime. In this paper, we propose Child Count based Load Balancing in RPL namely Ch-LBRPL. Ch-LBRPL detects load imbalance at DAG, DODAG and Multi DODAG level and uses child count method to overcome load imbalance. The results suggest that Ch-LBRPL is efficient in load balancing DAG and DODAGs, reduce parent switching, reduce DIO messages and improve energy efficiency. We also propose new model for Multi DODAG load balancing.


Internet of Things RPL Load balancing Child count Bottleneck problem Multi DODAG 


  1. 1.
    Evans, D.: The Internet of Things: How the Next Evolution of the Internet is Changing Everything, CISCO White Paper-1, Apr 2011,
  2. 2.
    Sivagurunathan, S., et al.: Connectivity framework for smart devices. Zaigham, M. (ed.) Computer and Communications Network, Springer, pp. 307–331 (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Borgia, E.: The internet of things vision: key features, applications and open issues. Comput. Commun. 54, 1–31 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Accettura, N., Grieco, L.A., Boggia, G. Camarda, P.: Performance analysis of the RPL routing protocol. In: 2011 IEEE Int. Conf. Mechatronics, ICM 2011—Proceedings, pp. 767–772 (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hou, J., Jadhav, R., Luo, Z.: Optimization of parent node selection in RPL based networks. In: Internet Draft, pp. 1–11 (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim, H.S., Kim, H., Paek, J., Bahk, S.: Load balancing under heavy traffic in RPL routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. IEEE Trans. Mob. Comput. 1233(c), 1–1 (2016)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Marwa, M., et al.: RPL Load balancing via minimum degree spanning tree. IEEE Trans. (2016)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guo, J., Liu, X., Bhatti, G., Orlik, P., Parsons, K.: Load Balanced Routing for Low Power and Lossy NetworksGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Iova, O., Theoleyre, F., Noel, T.: Exploiting multiple parents in RPL to improve both the network lifetime and its stability. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. 610–616 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Le, Q., Ngo-Quynh, T., Magedanz, T., et al.: RPL Based Multipath Routing Protocols for Internet of Things. IEEE Xplore (2014)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ha, M., Kwon, K., Kim, D., Kong, P.Y.: Dynamic and distributed load balancing scheme in multi-gateway based 6LoWPAN. In: IEEE International Conference on Green Computing (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mamoun Qasem, B.G., Ahmed, A.-D., Imed, R.: Load balancing objective function in RPL. In: Internet Draft, pp. 1–10 (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clausen, T., Herberg, U.: Multipoint-to-point and broadcast in RPL. In: Proceedings of 13th International Conference Network-Based Information System NBiS 2010, vol. 3, no. Lix, pp. 493–498 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Iova, O., Picco, P., Istomin, T., Kiraly, C.: RPL: the routing standard for the internet of things… or is it? IEEE Commun. Mag. 54(12), 16–22 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hou, J., Jadhav, R., Luo, Z.: Optimization of parent node deletion in RPL based networks. In: Internet Draft, pp. 1–11 (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gnawali, O., Levis, P.: The Minimum Rank with Hysteresis Objective Function. RFC, pp. 1–13 (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.St. Xavier’s College of Management and TechnologyPatnaIndia

Personalised recommendations