Advertisement

Soil: Microbial Cell Factory for Assortment with Beneficial Role in Agriculture

  • Pratiksha Singh
  • Rajesh Kumar Singh
  • Mohini Prabha Singh
  • Qi Qi Song
  • Manoj K. Solanki
  • Li-Tao Yang
  • Yang-Rui Li
Chapter

Abstract

The industrialization of agriculture significantly increased the essential yield productivity, and worldwide population growth has led to the demand for a substantial increase in the quantity of food produced. However, farmers regularly apply the maximum amount of chemical fertilizers, which are costly and non-biodegradable. Consequently, the uneven and longtime practice of using more chemical fertilizer has reduced the soil fertility and yield and is also detrimental to the available microorganisms in the soil. Therefore, scientists are anticipated to present a new and updated agricultural practice that is a benefit to raising agriculture products. In rhizosphere soil and on plant root surfaces, a collection of different natural microbial flora exist that execute the beneficial role of the various plants for growth and progress, which are usually reflected as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), and they have potential to be a promising method for agriculture practice. Several reports are available on the application of PGPR in plant growth development and in different crops. Generally, PGPR is classified into two mechanisms, i.e., direct and indirect. The mechanisms of PGPR facilitating the improvement of plant development consist of nitrogen fixation, solubilization of phosphate and mineralization of additional nutrients, production of siderophores, phytohormones (auxin-indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, ethylene, gibberellic acid and cytokinin), ACC-deaminase activity to decrease the ethylene level in crop roots to enhance root length, antagonistic activity, hydrolytic enzymes (ß-1-3-glucanase, chitinases, protease), antibiotics, hydrogen cyanide against several pathogens, etc. Apart from this, PGPR might show a crucial function in the improvement of numerous stresses in several plants by secreting exopolysaccharides, volatile compounds, inducing osmolytes production, antioxidants enzymes, and up or down-regulation of stress-responsive genes. These plant-beneficial rhizobacteria can also decrease the amount of hazardous agricultural chemicals used, which are universally responsible for disrupting the agro-ecological systems. In this chapter, efforts are made to discuss the main functions of PGPR in crop growth enhancement and progress along with their important mechanisms and significance in crop production on a sustainable basis.

Keywords

Microorganisms Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Crop protection Phytohormones PGPR mechanisms 

References

  1. Aeron A, Kumar S, Pandey P et al (2011) Emerging role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in agrobiology. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: crop ecosystems. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 1–36.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-18357-7-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguado-Santacruz GAA, Moreno-Gómez BA, Jiménez-Francisco BB et al (2012) Impact of the microbial siderophores and phyto siderophores on the iron assimilation by plants: a synthesis. Rev Fitotec Mex 35:9–21Google Scholar
  3. Ahemad M, Khan MS (2010) Influence of selective herbicides on plant growth promoting traits of phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter asburiae strain PS2. Res J Microbiol 5:849–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahemad M, Khan MS (2011) Assessment of plant growth promoting activities of rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida under insecticide-stress. Microbiol J 1:54–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmad F, Ahmad I, Khan MS et al (2008) Screening of free-living rhizospheric bacteria for their multiple plant growth promoting activities. Microbiol Res 163:173–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmed E, Holmstrom SJM (2014) Siderophores in environmental research: roles and applications. Microb Biotechnol 7:196–208PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Babili S, Bouwmeester HJ (2015) Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone. Annu Rev Plant Biol 66:161–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Allen LE (1957) Experiments in soil bacteriology. Burgess, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  9. Aloni R, Aloni E, Langhans M et al (2006) Role of cytokinin and auxin in shaping root architecture: regulating vascular differentiation, lateral root initiation, root apical dominance and root gravitropism. Ann Bot 97:883–893PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alori ET, Glick BR, Babalola OO et al (2017) Microbial phosphorus solubilization and its potential for use in sustainable agriculture. Front Microbiol 8:971.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00971CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Arraes FBM, Beneventi MA, de Sa MEL et al (2015) Implications of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in soybean drought stress tolerance. BMC Plant Biol 15:213.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-015-0597-zCrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ashraf M (1994) Breeding for salinity tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 13:17–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Askeland RA, Morrison SM (1983) Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Appl Environ Microbiol 45:1802–1807PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Bangerth F, Li CJ, Gruber J et al (2000) Mutual interaction of auxin and cytokinins in regulating correlative dominance. Plant Growth Regul 32:205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berendsen RL, Pieterse CMJ, Bakker PAHM et al (2012) The rhizosphere microbiome and plant health. Trends Plant Sci 17:478–486PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berendsen RL, Verk MCV, Stringlis IA et al (2015) Unearthing the genomes of plant-beneficial Pseudomonas model strains WCS358, WCS374 and WCS417. BMC Genomics 16:539PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Berg G (2009) Plantmicrobe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 84:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blumera C, Haas D (2000) Iron regulation of the hcn ABC genes encoding hydrogen cyanide synthase depends on the anaerobic regulator ANR rather than on the global activator GacA in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. Microbiology 146(10):2417–2424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bottini R, Cassan F, Piccoli P (2004) Gibberellin production by bacteria and its involvement in plant growth promotion and yield increase. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:497–503Google Scholar
  20. Boukhalfa H, Lack J, Reilly SD et al (2003) Siderophore production and facilitated uptake of iron and plutonium in P. putida. AIP Conf Proc 673:343–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bronick CJ, Lal R (2005) Soil structure and management: a review. Geoderma 124:3–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de Bruijn DI, de Kock MJD, Yang M et al (2007) Genome-based discovery, structure prediction and functional analysis of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics in Pseudomonas species. Mol Microbiol 63:417–428PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Budi SW, Van Tuinen D, Arnould C et al (2000) Hydrolytic enzyme activity of Paenibacillus sp. strain B2 and effects of the antagonistic bacterium on cell integrity of two soil borne pathogenic fungi. Appl Soil Ecol 15:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Canfield D, Glazer AN, Falkowski PD (2010) The evolution and future of earth’s nitrogen cycle. Science 330:192–196PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Chester CGC (1948) A contribution to the study of fungi in the soil. Trans Brit Mycol Soc 30:100–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chhibber S, Nag D, Bansal S et al (2013) Inhibiting biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055 using an iron antagonizing molecule and a bacteriophage. BMC Microbiol 13:174–183PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cholodny N (1930) Uber eine neue methode zur untersuchung der Boden microflora. Arch Microbiol 1:620–652Google Scholar
  28. Conn HJ (1981) The microscopic study of bacteria and fungi in the soil. NY Agric Exp St Tech Bull 64:3–20Google Scholar
  29. Damam M, Kaloori K, Gaddam B et al (2016) Plant growth promoting substances (phytohormones) produced by rhizobacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of medicinal plants. Int J Pharm Sci Rev 37:130–136Google Scholar
  30. Das K, Prasanna R, Saxena AK et al (2017) Rhizobia: a potential biocontrol agent for soilborne fungal pathogens. Folia Microbiol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12223-017-0513-zPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. De Martinis D, Tomotsugu K, Chang C et al (2015) Ethylene is all around. Front Plant Sci 6:76.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00076CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Devendra KC, Prakash A, Johri BN et al (2007) Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants: mechanism of action. Indian J Microbiol 47:289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Devi KA, Pandey G, Rawat AKS et al (2017) The endophytic symbiont—Pseudomonas aeruginosa stimulates the antioxidant activity and growth of Achyranthes aspera L. Front Microbiol 8:1897.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01897CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Dixon R, Kahn D (2004) Genetic regulation of biological nitrogen fixation. Nat Rev Microbiol 2:621–631PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Döbereiner J (1997) Importância da fi xaçãobiológica de nitrogênio para a agricultura sustentável. Biotecnol Ciênc Desenvolv 1:2–3. Encarte EspecialGoogle Scholar
  36. Doornbos RF, van Loon LC, Peter AHM et al (2012) Impact of root exudates and plant defense signaling on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere. Rev Sustain Dev 32:227–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. El-Sayed WS, Akhkha A, El-Naggar MY, Elbadry M (2014) In vitro antagonistic activity, plant growth promoting traits and phylogenetic affiliation of rhizobacteria associated with wild plants grown in arid soil. Front Microbiol 5:651.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00651CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Fardeau S, Mullie C, Dassonville-Klimpt A et al (2011) Bacterial iron uptake: a promising solution against multidrug resistant bacteria. In: Méndez-Vilas A (ed) Science against microbial pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances. Formatex, Badajoz, pp 695–705Google Scholar
  39. Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N et al (2009) Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agron Sustain Dev 29:185–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fernando DWG, Nakkeeran S, Zhang Y et al (2005) Biosynthesis of antibiotics by PGPR and its relation in biocontrol of plant diseases. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 67–109Google Scholar
  41. Figueiredo MVB, Mergulhão ACES, Sobral JK et al (2013) Biological nitrogen fixation: importance, associated diversity, and estimates. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant microbe Symbiosis: fundamentals and advances. © Springer, India.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-1287-4_10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Foyer CH, Rasool B, Davey JW et al (2016) Cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants: a focus on resistance to aphid infestation. J Exp Bot 7:2025–2037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Franche C, Lindstrom K, Elmerich C et al (2009) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with leguminous and non-leguminous plants. Plant Soil 321:35–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Francis D, Sorrell DA (2001) The interface between the cell cycle and plant growth regulators: a mini review. Plant Growth Regul 33:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Glick BR (1995) The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Can J Microbiol 41:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Glick BR (2005) Modulation of plant ethylene levels by the bacterial enzyme ACC deaminase. FEMS Microbiol Lett 251:1–7PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Glick BR (2012) Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications. Scientifca 2012:963401.  https://doi.org/10.6064/2012/963401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Glick BR, Penrose DM, Li J et al (1998) A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentrations by plant growth-promoting bacteria. JTB 190:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Glick BR, Todorovic B, Czarny J et al (2007) Promotion of plant growth by bacterial ACC deaminase. Crit Rev Plant Sci 26:227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Glick R, Gilmour C, Tremblay J et al (2010) Increase in rhamnolipid synthesis under iron-limiting conditions influences surface motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol 192(12):2973–2980PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Goswami D, Thakker JN, Dhandhukia PC et al (2016) Portraying mechanics of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): a review. Cogent Food Agric 2:1127500Google Scholar
  52. Gouda S, Kerry RG, Das G et al (2018) Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture. Microbiol Res 206:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haas D, Défago G (2005) Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent pseudomonads. Nat Rev Microbiol 3:307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Harvey TV (1925) Asurvey of the watermolds and Pythiums occurring in the soils of Chapel Hill. J Eisha Mitchell Sci Soc 41:151–164Google Scholar
  55. Hayat R, Ali S, Amara U et al (2010) Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Ann Microbiol 60:579–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hedden P, Phillips AL (2000) Gibberellin metabolism: new insights revealed by the genes. Trends Plant Sci 5:523–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hermosa R, Botella L, Alonso-Ramírez A et al (2011) Biotechnological applications of the gene transfer from the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianumspp. to plants. Plant Signal Behav 6(8):1235–1236PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Honma M (1993) Stereospecific reaction of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. In: Pech JC, Latche A, Balague (eds) Cellular and molecular aspects of the plant hormone ethylene. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Honma M, Shimomura T (1978) Metabolism of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Agri Biol Chem 42:1825–1831Google Scholar
  60. Howell SH, Lall S, Che P et al (2003) Cytokinins and shoot development. Trends Plant Sci 8:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Islam S, Akanda AM, Prova A et al (2016) Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from cucumber rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion and disease suppression. Front Microbiol 6:1360.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01360CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Jacobson CB, Pasternak JJ, Glick BR et al (1994) Partial purification and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase from the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR12-2. Can J Microbiol 40:1019–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jadhav HP, Shaikh SS, Sayyed RZ et al (2017) Role of hydrolytic enzymes of Rhizoflora in biocontrol of fungal Phytopathogens: an overview. In: Mehnaz S (ed) Rhizotrophs: plant growth promotion to bioremediation, microorganisms for sustainability, vol 2. Springer Nature, Singapore.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4862-3_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jones PCT, Mollison JE (1948) A technique for quantitative estimation of soil microorganisms. J Gen Microbiol 2:54–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kamal R, Gusain YS, Kumar V (2014) Interaction and symbiosis of fungi, Actinomycetes and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with plants: strategies for the improvement of plants health and defense system. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 3:564–585Google Scholar
  66. Kasim WA, Osman ME, Omar MN et al (2013) Control of drought stress in wheat using plant growth promoting bacteria. J Plant Growth Regul 32:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Katznelson H, Peterson EA, Rovatt JW et al (1962) Phosphate dissolving microorganisms on seed and in the root zone of plants. Can J Bot 40:1181–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Keel C, Voisard C, Berling CH et al (1989) Iron sufficiency, a prerequisite for suppression of tobacco black root rot in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 under gnotobiotic conditions. Phytopathology 79:584–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Khan MIR, Khan NA (2014) Ethylene reverses photosynthetic inhibition by nickel and zinc in mustard through changes in PS II activity, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and antioxidant metabolism. Protoplasma 251:1007–1019.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-014-0610-7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Ahemad M et al (2010) Plant growth promotion by phosphate solubilizing fungi – current perspective. Arch Agron Soil Sci 56:73–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Khan MS, Zaidi A, Ahmad E et al (2014) Mechanism of phosphate solubilization and physiological functions of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms. In: Khan MS et al (eds) Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. Springer, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08216-5_2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kim SD (2012) Colonizing ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens2112, among collections of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens spp. in pea rhizosphere. J Microbiol Biotechnol 22:763–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kim YC, Glick B, Bashan Y et al (2013) Enhancement of plant drought tolerance by microbes. In: Aroca R (ed) Plant responses to drought stress. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  74. Kishore N, Pindi PK, Ram RS (2015) Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms: a critical review. In: Bahadur B et al (eds) Plant biology and biotechnology: volume I: plant diversity, organization, function and improvement. Springer, India.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-2286-6_12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Knowles CJ, Bunch AW (1986) Microbial cyanide metabolism. Adv Microb Physiol 27:73–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kobayashi DY, Reedy RM, Bick JA et al (2002) Characterization of chitinase gene from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain 34S1 and its involvement in biological control. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:1047–1054PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kumar P, Dubey RC, Maheshwari DK et al (2012) Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere showed plant growth promoting and antagonistic activity against phytopathogens. Microbiol Res 167:493–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lam HM, Coschigano KT, Oliveira IC et al (1996) The molecular-genetics of nitrogen assimilation into amino acids in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47:569–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Letham DS, Palni LMS (1983) The biosynthesis and metabolism of cytokinins. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 34:163–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Li QSL, Glick SBR (2005) The effect of native and ACC deaminase containing Azospirillum brasilense Cdl843 on the rooting of carnation cuttings. Can J Microbiol 51:511–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Li C, Yue J, Wu X et al (2014) An ABA-responsive DRE-binding protein gene from Setariaitalica, SiARDP, the target gene of SiAREB, plays a critical role under drought stress. J Exp Bot 65:5415–5427.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru302CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Li HB, Singh RK, Singh P, Song QQ, Xing YX, Yang LT, Li YR et al (2017) Genetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing and plant growth promoting pseudomonas species isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere. Front Microbiol 8:1268.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01268CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Lin L, Li Z, Hu C, Zhang X et al (2012) Plant growth-promoting nitrogen-fixing Enterobacteria are in association with sugarcane plants growing in Guangxi, China. Microbes Environ 27(4):391–398PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Ann Rev Microbiol 63:541–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ma Y, Rajkumar M, Luo Y et al (2011) Inoculation of endophytic bacteria on host and non-host plants-effects on plant growth and Ni uptake. J Hazard Mater 195:230–237PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Mabood F, Zhou X, Smith DL et al (2014) Microbial signaling and plant growth promotion. Can J Plant Sci 94:1051–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. MacMillan J (2001) Occurrence of gibberellins in vascular plants, fungi, and bacteria. J Plant Growth Regul 20:387–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Majeed A, Abbasi MK, Hameed S et al (2015) Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion. Front Microbiol 6:198.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00198CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Maksimov IV, Abizgil’dina RR, Pusenkova LI et al (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as alternative to chemical crop protectors from pathogens (review). Appl Biochem Microbiol 47:333–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mankau R (1962) Soil fungistasis and nematophagous fungi. Phytopathology 52:611–615Google Scholar
  91. Meena RP, Jha A (2018) Conservation agriculture for climate change resilience: a microbiological perspective. In: Kashyap PL, Srivastava AK, Tiwari SP, Kumar S (eds) Microbes for climate resilient agriculture, 1st edn. Wiley. Published 2018 by WileyGoogle Scholar
  92. Mehnaz S, Baig DN, Lazarovits G et al (2010) Genetic and phenotypic diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sugarcane plants growing in Pakistan. J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:1614–1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Messenger AJM, Ratledge C (1985) Siderophores. In: Young MM (ed) Comprehensive biotechnology, 3rd edn. Pergamon press, New York, pp 275–295Google Scholar
  94. Muller M, Munne-Bosch S (2015) Ethylene response factors: a key regulatory hub in hormone and stress signaling. Plant Physiol 169:32–41.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.15.00677CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Nagoba B, Vedpathak D (2011) Medical applications of siderophores. Eur J Gen Med 8:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Nandi M, Selin C, Brawerman G et al (2017) Hydrogen cyanide, which contributes to Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 biocontrol, is upregulated in the presence of glycine. Biol Control 108:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nandimath AP, Karad DD, Gupta SG et al (2017) Consortium inoculum of five thermo-tolerant phosphate solubilizing Actinomycetes for multipurpose biofertilizer preparation. Iran J Microbiol 9:295–304PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. Naznin HA, Kimura M, Miyazawa M et al (2012) Analysis of volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth promoting fungus phoma sp. GS8- 3 for growth promotion effects on tobacco. Microbe Environ 28:42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Neeraja C, Anil K, Purushotham P et al (2010) Biotechnological approaches to develop bacterial chitinases as a bioshield against fungal diseases. Crit Rev Biotechnol 30:231–241PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Neilands JB (1995) Siderophores: structure and function of microbial iron transport compounds. J Biol Chem 270:26723–26726PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Olanrewaju OS, Glick BR, Babalola OO et al (2017) Mechanisms of action of plant growth promoting bacteria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 33:197PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ongena M, Jacques P (2008) Bacillus lipopeptides: versatile weapons for plant disease biocontrol. Rev Trends Microbiol 16:115–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2007.12.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ongena M, Thonart P (2006) Resistance induced in plants by non-pathogenic microorganisms: elicitation and defense responses. In: Teixeira da Silva JA (ed) Floriculture, ornamental and plant biotechnology: advances and topical issues, vol 3. Global Science Books, London, pp 447–463Google Scholar
  104. Phi QT, Yu-Mi P, Keyung-Jo S et al (2010) Assessment of root-associated Paenibacillus polymyxa groups on growth promotion and induced systemic resistance in pepper. J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:1605–1613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Pikovskaya RI (1948) Mobilization of phosphorus in soil in connection with vital activity of some microbial species. Microbiol 17:362–370Google Scholar
  106. Pontigo S, Godoy K, Jiménez H et al (2017) Silicon-mediated alleviation of aluminum toxicity by modulation of Al/Si uptake and antioxidant performance in ryegrass plants. Front Plant Sci 8:642PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pradhan A, Pinheiro JP, Seena S et al (2014) Polyhydroxyfullerene binds cadmium ions and alleviates metal-induced oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol 80(18):5874–5881.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01329-14PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Prathap M, Ranjitha KBD (2015) A critical review on plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Plant Pathol Microbiol 6:1–4Google Scholar
  109. Raaijmakers JM, Paulitz TC, Steinberg C et al (2009) The rhizosphere: a playground and battlefield for soilborne pathogens and beneficial microorganisms. Plant Soil 321:341–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Raaijmakers JM, de Bruijn I, Nybroe O et al (2010) Natural functions of lipopeptides from Bacillus and Pseudomonas: more than surfactants and antibiotics. FEMS Microbiol Rev 34:1037–1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumarb M (2015) The interactive effects of simultaneous biotic and abiotic stresses on plants: mechanistic understanding from drought and pathogen combination. J Plant Physiol 176:47–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ramos-Solano B, Barriuso J, Gutiérrez-Mañero FJ et al (2008) Physiological and molecular mechanisms of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). In: Ahmad I, Pichtel J, Hayat S (eds) Plant–bacteria interactions: strategies and techniques to promote plant growth. Wiley VCH, Weinheim, pp 41–54.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527621989.ch3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rashid S, Charles TC, Glick BR et al (2012) Isolation and characterization of new plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes. Appl Soil Ecol 61:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Reid MS (1981) The role of ethylene in flower senescene. Acta Hortic 261:157–169Google Scholar
  115. Riefler M, Novak O, Strnad M et al (2006) Arabidopsis cytokinin receptor mutants reveal functions in shoot growth, leaf senescence, seed size, germination, root development, and cytokinin metabolism. Plant Cell 18:40–54PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rokhbakhsh-Zamin F, Sachdev D, Kazemi-Pour N et al (2011) Characterization of plant-growth-promoting traits of Acinetobacter species isolated from rhizosphere of Pennisetum glaucum. J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:556–566PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  117. Rossi G, Ricardo S (1927) L’seae microscopico ebacteriologicoiretto del ferrenoagrario. Nuovi Ann Minist Agric 7:457–470Google Scholar
  118. Saha M, Sarkar S, Sarkar B et al (2015) Microbial siderophores and their potential applications: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4294-0PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Saharan BS, Nehra V (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a critical review. Life Sci Med Res 21:1–30Google Scholar
  120. Sahu B, Singh J, Shankar G et al (2018) Pseudomonas fluorescens PGPR bacteria as well as biocontrol agent: a review. IJCS 6:01–07CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sakakibara H (2006) Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:431–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Saxena J, Minaxi, Jha A et al (2014) Impact of a phosphate solubilizing bacterium and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus etunicatum) on growth, yield and P concentration in wheat plants. Clean Soil Air Water.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201300492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Schaller GE (2012) Ethylene and the regulation of plant development. BMC Biol 10:9.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7007-10-9CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Schippers B, Bakker A, Bakker P et al (1990) Beneficial and deleterious effects of HCN-producing pseudomonads on rhizosphere interactions. Plant Soil 129(1):75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Schmülling T (2002) New insights into the functions of cytokinins in plant development. J Plant Growth Regul 21:40–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Schwyn B, Neilands JB (1987) Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophores. Anal Biochem 160:47–56PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Shaikh SS, Sayyed RZ (2015) Role of plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria and their formulation in biocontrol of plant diseases. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant microbes Symbiosis: applied facets. Springer, New Delhi, pp 337–351Google Scholar
  128. Sharma SB, Sayyed RZ, Trivedi MH, Gobi TA et al (2013) Phosphate solubilizing microbes: sustainable approach for managing phosphorus deficiency in agricultural soils. Springer Plus 2:587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sharma S, Kulkarni J, Jha B (2016) Halotolerant rhizobacteria promote growth and enhance salinity tolerance in peanut. Front Microbiol 7:1600.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01600CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. Sharma A, Kashyap PL, Srivastava AK et al (2018) Isolation and characterization of halotolerant bacilli from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) rhizosphere for plant growth promotion and biocontrol traits. Eur J Plant Pathol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-018-1592-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Shilev S (2013) Soil Rhizobacteria regulating the uptake of nutrients and undesirable elements by plants. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant microbe Symbiosis: fundamentals and advances. Springer, India, pp 147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Shimizu-Sato S, Mori H (2001) Control of outgrowth and dormancy in axillary buds. Plant Physiol 127:1405–1413PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Singh RK, Kumar DP, Solanki MK et al (2012) Optimization of media components for chitinase production by chickpea rhizosphere associated Lysinibacillus fusiformis B-CM18. JBM 52:1–10Google Scholar
  134. Singh RK, Kumar DP, Solanki MK et al (2013) Multifarious plant growth promoting characteristics of chickpea rhizosphere associated Bacilli help to suppress soil-borne pathogens. Plant Grow Regul 73:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Singh RK, Singh P, Li HB et al (2017a) Soil–plant–microbe interactions: use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria for plant growth and development in sugarcane. In: Singh DP et al (eds) Plant-microbe interactions in agro-ecological perspectives. Springer Nature, Singapore.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5813-4_3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Singh S, Tripathi DK, Singh S et al (2017b) Toxicity of aluminium on various levels of plant cells and organism: a review. Environ Exp Bot 137:177–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sofia IAP, Paula MLC (2014) Phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacteria enhance Zea mays growth in agricultural P-deficient soils. Ecol Eng 73:526–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Solanki MK, Wang Z, Wang FY et al (2016) Intercropping in sugarcane cultivation influenced the soil properties and enhanced the diversity of vital diazotrophic bacteria. Sugar Tech.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-016-0445-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Spaepen S, Vanderleyden J (2011) Auxin and plant-microbe interactions. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 3:a001438.  https://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a001438CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Sperberg JI (1958) The incidence of apatite-solubilizing organisms in the rhizosphere and soil. Aust J Agric Res 9:778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Stirk WA, Van Staden J (2010) Flow of cytokinins through the environment. Plant Growth Regul 62:101–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Stover RH, Waite BH (1953) An improved method of isolating Fusarium sp. from plant tissues. Phytopathology 43:700–701Google Scholar
  143. Sun X, Zhao T, Gan S et al (2016) Ethylene positively regulates cold tolerance in grapevine by modulating the expression of ethylene response factor 057. Sci Rep 6:24066.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24066CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. Tanimoto E (2005) Regulation and root growth by plant hormones-roles for auxins and gibberellins. Crit Rev Plant Sci 24:249–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tariq M, Noman M, Ahmed T et al (2017) Antagonistic features displayed by plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): a review. J Plant Sci Phytopathol 1:038–043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Thao NP, Khan MIR, Thu NBA et al (2015) Role of ethylene and its cross talk with other signaling molecules in plant responses to heavy metal stress. Plant Physiol 169:73–84.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.15.00663CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Thornton RH (1952) The screened immersion plate. A method of isolating soil microorganisms. Research 5:190–191Google Scholar
  148. Tian F, Ding Y, Zhu H et al (2009) Genetic diversity of siderophore-producing bacteria of tobacco rhizosphere. Braz J Microbiol 40:276–284PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Timmusk S, Islam A, Abd El D et al (2014) Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harsh environments: enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stressvolatiles. PLoS One 9:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tiwari S, Singh P, Tiwari R et al (2011) Salt-tolerant rhizobacteria-mediated induced tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and chemical diversity in rhizosphere enhance plant growth. Biol Fertil Soils 47:907–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM (2006) Induced systemic resistance as a mechanism of disease suppression by rhizobacteria. In: Siddiqui ZA (ed) PGPR: biocontrol and biofertilization. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 39–66Google Scholar
  152. Van Loon LC, Bakker PAHM, Pieterse CMJ et al (1998) Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria. Annu Rev Phytopathol 36:453–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Van Peer R, Niemann GJ, Schippers B et al (1991) Induced resistance and phytoalexin accumulation in biological control of fusarium wilt of carnation by Pseudomonas sp. strain WCS417r. Phytopathology 91:728–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Vejan P, Abdullah R, Khadiran T et al (2016) Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in agricultural sustainability—a review. Molecules 21:573.  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050573CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Vinayarani G, Prakash HS (2018) Growth promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria from Curcuma longa L. as biocontrol agents against rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases. Plant Pathol J 34(3):218–235PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Vinocur B, Altman A (2005) Recent advances in engineering plant tolerance to abiotic stress: achievements and limitations. Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:123–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Vishwakarma K, Upadhyay N, Kumar N et al (2017) Abscisic acid signaling and abiotic stress tolerance in plants: a review on current knowledge and future prospects. Front Plant Sci 8:161.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00161CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Voisard C, Keel C, Haas D, Dèfago G et al (1989) Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens helps suppress black root rot of tobacco under gnotobiotic conditions. EMBO J 8:351–358PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Vurukonda SSKP, Vardharajula S, Shrivastava M et al (2016) Enhancement of drought stress tolerance in crops by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Microbiol Res 184:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Waksman SA (1911) Do fungi live and produce mycelium in the soil? Soil Sci NS 44:320–322Google Scholar
  161. Waksman SA (1944) Three decades with soil fungi. Soil Sci 58:89–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wang X, Wang Y, Tian J et al (2009) Over expressing AtPAP15 enhances phosphorus efficiency in soybean. Plant Physiol 151:233–240PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wang J, Tian C, Zhang C et al (2017) Cytokinin signaling activates WUSCHEL expression during axillary meristem initiation. Plant Cell 29:1373–1387PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Warcup JH (1950) The soil plate method for isolation of soil fungi. Nature (London) 166:117–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wei G, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S et al (1991) Induction of systemic resistance of cucumber to Colletotrichum orbiculare by select strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Phytopathology 81:1508–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Weinberg ED (2004) Suppression of bacterial biofilm formation by iron limitation. Med Hypotheses 63:863–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Whipps J (1990) Carbon utilization. In: Lynch JM (ed) The rhizosphere. Wiley-Interscience, Chichester, pp 59–97Google Scholar
  168. Wong WS, Tan SN, Ge L et al (2015) The importance of phytohormones and microbes in biofertilizers. In: Maheshwari DK (ed) Bacterial metabolites in sustainable agroecosystem, sustainable development and biodiversity, vol 12. Springer, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24654-3_6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Yang J, Kloepper JW, Ryu CM et al (2009) Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci 14:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Yong JWH, Letham DS, Wong SC et al (2014) Rhizobium-induced elevation in xylem cytokinin delivery in pigeonpea induces changes in shoot development and leaf physiology. Funct Plant Biol 41:1323–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Youseif SH (2018) Genetic diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and their effects on the growth of maize plants under greenhouse conditions. AOAS.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2018.04.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Zahir ZA, Ghani U, Naveed M et al (2009) Comparative effectiveness of pseudomonas and Serratia sp. containing ACC-deaminase for improving growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salt-stressed conditions. Arch Microbiol 191:415–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Zahir ZA, Shah MK, Naveed M et al (2010) Substrate dependent auxin production by Rhizobium phaseoli improves the growth and yield of Vigna radiata L. under salt stress conditions. J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:1288–1294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Zehr JP, Jenkins BD, Short SM et al (2003) Nitrogenase gene diversity and microbial community structure: a cross-system comparison. Appl Environ Microbiol 5:539–554Google Scholar
  175. Zhang D (2014) Abscisic acid: metabolism, transport and signaling. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  176. Zhu F, Qu L, Hong X, Sun X et al (2011) Isolation and characterization of a phosphate solubilizing halophilic bacterium Kushneria sp. YCWA18 from Daqiao Saltern on the coast of yellow sea of China. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011:615032.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/615032CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pratiksha Singh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rajesh Kumar Singh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mohini Prabha Singh
    • 4
  • Qi Qi Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manoj K. Solanki
    • 1
  • Li-Tao Yang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yang-Rui Li
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Biotechnology and Genetic Improvement (Guangxi), Ministry of Agriculture, Sugarcane Research Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesGuangxi Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Genetic Improvement, Sugarcane Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural SciencesNanningChina
  2. 2.College of Agriculture, Guangxi UniversityNanningChina
  3. 3.Guangxi Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and BiotechnologyNanningChina
  4. 4.Punjab Agriculture UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations