Soil: Microbial Cell Factory for Assortment with Beneficial Role in Agriculture

  • Pratiksha Singh
  • Rajesh Kumar Singh
  • Mohini Prabha Singh
  • Qi Qi Song
  • Manoj K. Solanki
  • Li-Tao Yang
  • Yang-Rui Li


The industrialization of agriculture significantly increased the essential yield productivity, and worldwide population growth has led to the demand for a substantial increase in the quantity of food produced. However, farmers regularly apply the maximum amount of chemical fertilizers, which are costly and non-biodegradable. Consequently, the uneven and longtime practice of using more chemical fertilizer has reduced the soil fertility and yield and is also detrimental to the available microorganisms in the soil. Therefore, scientists are anticipated to present a new and updated agricultural practice that is a benefit to raising agriculture products. In rhizosphere soil and on plant root surfaces, a collection of different natural microbial flora exist that execute the beneficial role of the various plants for growth and progress, which are usually reflected as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), and they have potential to be a promising method for agriculture practice. Several reports are available on the application of PGPR in plant growth development and in different crops. Generally, PGPR is classified into two mechanisms, i.e., direct and indirect. The mechanisms of PGPR facilitating the improvement of plant development consist of nitrogen fixation, solubilization of phosphate and mineralization of additional nutrients, production of siderophores, phytohormones (auxin-indole acetic acid, abscisic acid, ethylene, gibberellic acid and cytokinin), ACC-deaminase activity to decrease the ethylene level in crop roots to enhance root length, antagonistic activity, hydrolytic enzymes (ß-1-3-glucanase, chitinases, protease), antibiotics, hydrogen cyanide against several pathogens, etc. Apart from this, PGPR might show a crucial function in the improvement of numerous stresses in several plants by secreting exopolysaccharides, volatile compounds, inducing osmolytes production, antioxidants enzymes, and up or down-regulation of stress-responsive genes. These plant-beneficial rhizobacteria can also decrease the amount of hazardous agricultural chemicals used, which are universally responsible for disrupting the agro-ecological systems. In this chapter, efforts are made to discuss the main functions of PGPR in crop growth enhancement and progress along with their important mechanisms and significance in crop production on a sustainable basis.


Microorganisms Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria Crop protection Phytohormones PGPR mechanisms 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pratiksha Singh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Rajesh Kumar Singh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mohini Prabha Singh
    • 4
  • Qi Qi Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Manoj K. Solanki
    • 1
  • Li-Tao Yang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yang-Rui Li
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Biotechnology and Genetic Improvement (Guangxi), Ministry of Agriculture, Sugarcane Research Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesGuangxi Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Genetic Improvement, Sugarcane Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural SciencesNanningChina
  2. 2.College of Agriculture, Guangxi UniversityNanningChina
  3. 3.Guangxi Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and BiotechnologyNanningChina
  4. 4.Punjab Agriculture UniversityLudhianaIndia

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