Halotolerant Rhizobacteria: A Promising Probiotic for Saline Soil-Based Agriculture

  • Ankita Alexander
  • Avinash MishraEmail author
  • Bhavanath JhaEmail author


Soil salinity is a serious threat to sustainable agriculture, and a number of research are going on to improve saline-resistant crops by using various breeding methods and genetic engineering tools. These methods are time-consuming, often face yield penalties, and many other ethical issues. There is a need to explore other more stable, environmentally friendly methods for the sustainable agriculture. Exploration of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) associated with salt-tolerant plants (halophytes) and their use as probiotics for saline soil agriculture are a promising substitute for classical approaches. Salinity is one of the major abiotic stress reported from arid and semiarid regions which causes a major loss in the agriculture productivity. Halophytes are adapted to the saline environment because of their genetic makeup and associated microbiome. These microbiomes have potential to survive in the saline condition, but they are not thoroughly explored. Several studies showed that bacteria associated with halophytes, directly and indirectly, support the plant growth and yield in saline conditions; thus, these bacteria can be used as probiotics for salt-sensitive plants (glycophytes) grown in the salt-affected area to enhance the productivity. PGPR induce many morphological, physiological, and genetic changes in a plant which compensate the pressure of salt stress. The genetic level changes in plants due to application or the presence of PGPR are known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). PGPR secrete some beneficial elements like organic solutes, siderophores, etc. to survive in harsh conditions. PGPR also help plants to maintain their osmotic pressure and nutrient balance. The presence of PGPR also affects the level of various phytohormones in plants which play a major role in growth, development, and stress response of the plant.


Halophytes Salt-sensitive plants Halotolerant PGPR Salinity stress Crop plants 



CSIR-CSMCRI Communication No.: PRIS-42/2018.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research InstituteBhavnagarIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative ResearchCouncil of Scientific and Industrial ResearchGhaziabadIndia

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