Advertisement

Freshwater Pollution: Effects on Aquatic Life and Human Health

  • Rizwana Qadri
  • Muneeb A. Faiq
Chapter

Abstract

An all-inclusive academic anecdote on water or freshwater and its role in the maintenance and wellbeing of biological systems is a momentous task which goes beyond mere rattling of statistics. Therefore, a discussion about any aspect of water right from basic chemistry to biochemistry and then to biological realm has to have certain restrictions in terms of their scope and area of focus. Phenomena from basic combustion to all life processes are mediated through production and/or consumption of molecules of water. There are dedicated biochemical processes in the biological systems that are important to regulate life at the fundamental level and these processes have a lot to do with molecular water and water as a solvent. There are even certain channels in the most fundamental parts of cellular life-the cell membranes; these channels are called aquaporins which are dedicated to the flow of water across the bio-membrane system to maintain life. With this view, it becomes easy to understand that the most abundant and ardently fundamental biochemical on earth is water. And it goes without saying that more that 70% of the earth’s surface is water and – curiously- the composition of any living organism is 70% water (or more); and this holds true for humans also. Based on this elementary verity, it becomes a mathematical reality that around 70–80% of the diseases must be waterborne. This gives birth to an enormously important field of medicine dealing with the investigations related to water in health and disease. Rapid advancements of unregulated technology and unchecked lifestyle changes have led to an intense upsurge in water pollution and- as a consequence- water borne diseases. A direct impact of industrialization, radioactive discharge, pesticide use etc. on water is generally encompassed within the umbrella term called water pollution. This phenomenon has ill effects on all biological systems including humans. In this chapter we shall restrict our discussion to ill effects of water pollution on human health and wellbeing with occasional narratives on freshwater aquatic life. Water pollution, to start with, is synonymous with typhoid, cholera, encephalitis, hepatitis, giardiasis, cholera, poliomyelitis, shigellosis, diarrhea, death etc. Diseases like lead toxicity, are also included in this group though they are not pathogen borne. There is, therefore, a dire need to have regulatory interventions to bring down the severity, incidence and prevalence of diseases secondary to water pollution which includes agricultural and domestic waste also.

Keywords

Human health Water pollution Water borne diseases 

References

  1. Ahada, C. P. S., & Suthar, S. (2018). Groundwater nitrate contamination and associated human health risk assessment in southern districts of Punjab, India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 25(25), 25336–25347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad, S. M., Yusafzai, F., Bari, T., et al. (2014). Assessment of heavy metals in surface water of River Panjkora Dir Lower, KPK Pakistan. Journal of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 5, 144–152.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed, T., Scholz, F., Al-Faraj, W., et al. (2013). Water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health: A review for generalists with particular reference to Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 1–16.Google Scholar
  4. Alrumman, S. A., El-kott, A. F., & Kehsk, M. A. (2016). Water pollution: Source and treatment. American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 6(3), 88–98.Google Scholar
  5. Ballester, F., & Sunyer, J. (2000). Challenges to public health in the new millennium. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54, 2–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bibi, S., Khan, R. L., Nazir, R., et al. (2016). Heavy metals in drinking water of Lakki Marwat District, KPK, Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal, 34(1), 15–19.Google Scholar
  7. Briggs, D. (2003). Environmental pollution and the global burden of disease. British Medical Bulletin, 68, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chowdhury, S., Annabelle, K., & Klaus, F. Z. (2015). Arsenic contamination of drinking water and mental health (pp. 1–28). London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.Google Scholar
  9. Corcoran, E., Nellemann, C., Baker, E., et al. (2010). Sick water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A Rapid Response Assessment. Arendal: United Nations Environment Programme.Google Scholar
  10. Currie, J., Joshua, G. Z., Katherine, M., et al. (2013). Something in the water: Contaminated drinking water and infant health. Canadian Journal of Economics, 46(3), 791–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Desai, N., & Smt Vanitaben. (2014). A study on the water pollution based on the environmental problem. Indian Journal of Research, 3(12), 95–96.Google Scholar
  12. Ebenstein, A. Y. (2008). Water pollution and digestive cancer in China. Institutions and governance programs, pp. 1–45.Google Scholar
  13. Faiq, M. A., Kumar, A., Singh, H. N., Pareek, V., & Commentary, K. P. (2018). A possible mechanism of Zika virus associated microcephaly: Imperative role of retinoic acid response element (RARE) consensus sequence repeats in the viral genome. Frontiers in Microbiology.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00190. eCollection 2018.
  14. Halder, J. N., & Islam, M. N. (2015). Water pollution and its impact on the human health. Journal of Environment and Human, 2(1), 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ho, Y. C., Show, K. Y., Guo, X. X., et al. (2012). Industrial discharge and their affects to the environment. In Industrial waste (pp. 1–32). London: InTech.Google Scholar
  16. Jabeen, S. Q., Mehmood, S., Tariq, B., et al. (2011). Health impact caused by poor water and sanitation in district Abbottabad. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, 23(1), 47–50.Google Scholar
  17. Juneja, T., & Chauhdary, A. (2013). Assessment of water quality and its effect on the health of residents of Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan: A cross sectional study. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 5(4), 186–191.Google Scholar
  18. Kamble, S. M. (2014). Water pollution and public health issues in Kolhapur city in Maharashtra. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 4(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  19. Khan, M. A., & Ghouri, A. M. (2011). Environmental pollution: Its effects on life and its remedies. Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce, 2(2), 276–285.Google Scholar
  20. Khan, N., Hussain, S. T., Saboor, A., et al. (2013). Physiochemical investigation of the drinking water sources from Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 8(33), 1661–1671.Google Scholar
  21. Khurana, I., & Sen, R. (2008). Drinking water quality in rural India: Issues and approaches-Water Aid. India water Portal.Google Scholar
  22. Krishnan, S., & Indu, R. (2006). Groundwater contamination in India: Discussing physical processes, health and sociobehavioral dimensions. IWMI-Tata, Water Policy Research Programmes, Anand, India.Google Scholar
  23. Kumar, A., Singh, H. N., Pareek, V., Raza, K., Dantham, S., Kumar, P., Mochan, S., & Faiq, M. A. (2016). A possible mechanism of Zika virus associated microcephaly: Imperative role of retinoic acid response element (RARE) consensus sequence repeats in the viral genome. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9(995), 403.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00403. eCollection 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lu, Y., Song, S., Wang, R., et al. (2015). Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China. Environment International, 77, 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nel, L. H., & Markotter, W. (2009). New and emerging waterborne infectious diseases. Encyclopedia of Life Support System, 1, 1–10.Google Scholar
  26. Owa, F. D. (2013). Water pollution: Sources, effects, control and management. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(8), 65–68.Google Scholar
  27. Pawari, M. J., & Gawande, S. (2015). Ground water pollution & its consequence. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 3(4), 773–776.Google Scholar
  28. Salem, H. M., Eweida, E. A., & Farag, A. (2000). Heavy metals in drinking water and their environmental impact on human health. ICEHM, 2000, 542–556.Google Scholar
  29. Ullah, S., Javed, M. W., Shafique, M., et al. (2014). An integrated approach for quality assessment of drinking water using GIS: A case study of Lower Dir. Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences, 47(2), 163–174.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rizwana Qadri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muneeb A. Faiq
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory MedicineAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Genetics Unit, Department of PediatricsAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Medical Biotechnology Laboratory, Dr. B. Ambedkar Center for Biomedical ResearchUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Laboratory for Molecular Reproduction and Genetics, Department of AnatomyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  5. 5.Neuroimaging and Visual Science Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Langone Health CenterNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations