Advertisement

Phenological Pattern and Community Structure of Dipterocarpaceae in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Lampung

  • Diny HartiningtiasEmail author
  • Noviar Andayani
  • Nurul L. Winarni
Chapter

Abstract

Most of the tropical lowland dipterocarp forests in Indonesia have been fragmented and isolated due to excessive logging and forest fire. In addition, the growth of dipterocarp is generally slow. If these conditions persist, it will eventually decrease the dipterocarp’s population. Information on phenological patterns and community structure are one of the basic pieces of knowledge for conservation management. We conducted research to answer these questions: what was the phenological pattern and population dynamics of Dipterocarpaceae, and to what extent did phenological pattern affect population dynamics of Dipterocarpaceae?

We found that the dipterocarps in Bukit Barisan National Parks show sub-annual flowering seasons, in which flowering occurs more than one cycle per year. It is different from the common dipterocarps’ phenological pattern that usually has super-annual pattern or mass flowering. The pattern of the flowering and fruiting season in dipterocarp phenology begins with the emergence of new leaves in March, flowering in April, and ends with the appearance of the fruit in May or 3–5 months later.

There are 11 dipterocarps species in the study area; 3 of them are critically endangered, 2 are endangered, 1 is vulnerable, and the others are not listed in the IUCN Red List. Dipterocarps’ populations were dominated by Vaticaobovata, Dipterocarpushumeratus, and D. haseltii. However, even though mass flowering and fruiting season are believed to represent an evolutionary adaptation of flowering and fruiting patterns in plants to face high mortality, the phenological pattern does not seem to have affected the population dynamics of dipterocarps.

Keywords

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park Community structure Dipterocarpaceae Phenology analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Research and Development Center for Climate Change and Policy, Ministry of Forestry, Republic of Indonesia for funding this research and also Titi Kalima and Kusumadewi Sri Yulitato for their advises.

References

  1. Appanah S, Turnbull JM (1998) A review of dipterocarps: taxonomy, ecology, and silviculture. Center for International Forestry Research Indonesia, BogorGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashton PS (1988) Dipterocarp biology as a window to the understanding of tropical forest structure. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19:347–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashton PS, Givnish TJ, Appanah S (1998) Staggered flowering in the Dipterocarpaceae: new insight into floral induction and the evolution of mast fruiting in the aseasonal tropics. Univ Chic 132(1):44–66Google Scholar
  4. Brearley FQ et al (2007) Reproductive phenology over a 10 year period in a lowland evergreen rain forest of Central Borneo. J Ecol 95:828–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cadelus CL, Chazdon RL (2005) Innercrown microenvironments of two emergent tree species in a lowland wet forest. Assoc Trop Biol Conserv 37(2):238–244Google Scholar
  6. Fenner M (1998) The phenology of growth and reproduction in plants. Gustav Fischer Verlag 1(1):78–91Google Scholar
  7. Ghazoul J, Sheil D (2010) Tropical rain forest, ecology, diversity, and conservation. Oxford University Press Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Hopkins WG, Huner NPA (2006) Introduction to plant physiology, 4th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Kalima T (2010) Status populasi Dipterocarpaceae di Hutan Lindung Capar, Brebes, Jawa Tengah. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam 7(4):341–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Molles MC (2010) Ecology: concept and application, 6th edn. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Morison JIL, Morcroft MC (2006) Plant growth and climate change. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nakagawa M, Takeuchi Y, Kenta T, Nakashizuka T (2005) Predispersal seed predation by insects vs. vertebrates in six dipterocarp species in Serawak, Malaysia. Biotropica 37(3):389–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Newstorm LE, Fankie GW, Baker HG (1994) A new classification for plants phenology based on flowering pattern in lowland tropical rain forest tree at La Selva, Costarica. Biotropica 26(2):141–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. O’Brien TG, Kinnard MF (1996) Birds and mammals of the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Oryx 30(3):207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Perlindungan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam (PHKA) (2003) Submission for nomination of tropical rainforest heritage of Sumatra. Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation Ministry of Forestry, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  16. Poppenborg P, Holscher D (2009) The influence of emergent trees on rainfall distribution in a cacao agroforest (Sulawesi, Indonesia). Flora 204:703–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Purwaningsih (2004) Review: sebaran ekologi jenis-jenis Dipterocarpaceae di Indonesia. Biodiversitas 5(2):89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Raju AJS, Ramana KV, Chandra PH (2011) Reproductive ecology of Shorea roxburhhii G. Don (Dipterocarpaceae), an endangered semievergreen tree species of peninsular India. J Threatened Taxa 3(9):2061–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sakai S et al (1999) Plant reproductive phenology over four years including an episode of general flowering in a lowland dipterocarp forest, Sarawak, Malaysia. Am J Bot 86(10):1414–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schaik CP v (1986) Phenological change in a Sumatran rain forest. J Trop Ecol 2(4):327–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sunarto Kinnard MF, O’Brien TG, Iqbal M (1999) Effects of the 1997 El Nino fires in Bukit Barisan National Park: post fire tree mortality and recruitment. PHKA/WCS – Indonesia Program, BogorGoogle Scholar
  22. Torquebiau E (1984) Man-made dipterocarp forest in Sumatra. Agrofor Syst 2:103–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Turner IM (2001) The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Whitmore TC (1990) An introduction to tropical rain forest. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Wildlife Conservation Society Indonesia Program (WCS-IP) (2001) Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan dalam ruang dan waktu: laporan hasil penelitian 2000–2001. PHKA/WCS – Indonesia Program, BogorGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diny Hartiningtias
    • 1
    Email author
  • Noviar Andayani
    • 2
  • Nurul L. Winarni
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Mathematics and Life Science FacultyUniversitas IndonesiaDepokIndonesia
  2. 2.Wildlife Conservation Society – Indonesia Program (WCS – IP)BogorIndonesia
  3. 3.Research Center for Climate Change Universitas Indonesia (RCCC UI)DepokIndonesia

Personalised recommendations