Military Joint Task Force and the Challenges of Internal Security Operations in Nigeria: The Plateau State Experience
Over the years, especially in the past decade, Nigeria seems to have been confronted with more security challenges that have threatened the corporate existence of the country. The country has also been faced with lack of adequate manpower in its security agencies, especially the Nigerian Police, as such, there is a need for collaboration and synergy among the security actors. To this end, Joint Task Forces (JTFs) are usually set up for specific purposes and assignments to resolve different security concerns. For example, the JTF in the Niger Delta is set up to checkmate militancy in the region, the Special Task Force (STF) in Plateau State is set up to curb ethno-religious conflicts in the state and some parts of Bauchi and Kaduna States and the Joint Task Force in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa is to curtail insurgency. JTFs are usually set up based on the principle of inter-agency collaboration, meaning that all the security groups would formally work together to attain specific integrated mandates. But despite the heavy presence of the military and its joint operations, conflicts seem to persist, and capacity of the military to curtail them seems threatened or questioned. Therefore, this chapter examines the challenges of Joint Task Force Operations but with particular focus on its internal security operations in Plateau state. The chapter posits that maintenance of security in Plateau State is beyond the presence of the Military Joint Task Force alone but also includes the need for collective responsibility and sincerity of purpose by politicians in the State. The chapter concludes that even though the Nigerian 1999 Constitution (as amended) backs the role of the military in internal security operations, a robust policy framework for joint operations would help strengthen the operations, especially in providing the needed funds to procure and efficiently carry out its mandates.
KeywordsEthno-religious conflicts Militancy Internal security operations and security management
- Albert, I. O. (2012). Rethinking conflict, peace and sustainable development in Nigeria. In I. O. Albert, W. A. Eselebor, & N. D. Danjibo (Eds.), Peace, security and development in Nigeria. Abuja: Society for Peace Studies and Practice.Google Scholar
- Alozieuwa, H. S. (2010). Beyond the ethno-religious theory of the Jos conflict. Africa Peace and Conflict Journal, 3(2). Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://www.apcj.upeace.org/issues/APCJ_Dec2010_Vol3_Num2.pdf.
- Azinge E. (2013). Military in internal security operations: Challenges and prospects. Paper presented at the Nigerian Bar association 53rd annual general conference, Tinapa Calabar, Nigeria.Google Scholar
- Curbing Violence in Nigeria (1): The Jos Crisis, Crisis Group Africa Report No 196. (2012, December). Retrieved April 24, 2013, from http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/africa/west-africa/nigeria/196-curbing-violence-in-nigeria-i-the-jos-crisis.
- Emelonye, U. (2011). Crisis and conflict in Nigeria. In E. Uchenna & R. M. Buergenthal (Eds.), Nigeria: Peace Building through integration and citizenship. Rome: International Development Law Organization.Google Scholar
- Essien, F. (2012). Management of Security Threats in Nigeria: An integrative approach. In I. O. Albert, W. A. Eselebor, & N. D. Danjibo (Eds.), Peace, security and development in Nigeria. Abuja: Society for Peace Studies and Practice.Google Scholar
- Fayeye, J. (2012). The role of security sector in management of conflicts and promotion of democratic governance in Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3), 190–195. Maxwell Scientific Organization. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjss/v4-190-195.pdf.Google Scholar
- Houngnikpo, M. C. (2012). Africa’s militaries: A missing link in democratic transitions. Africa Security Brief, a Publication of Africa Center for Security Studies. Google Scholar
- Ihejirika, A. O. (2012). Roles, challenges, and future perspectives of the Nigerian Army. Lecture delivered by the Chief of Army Staff, Nigerian Army, to Participants of the National Defense College Course 20, Abuja, Nigeria, January 12, 2012.Google Scholar
- Joint Publication. (2012). Joint task force headquarters. Retrieved November 29, 2012, from http://www.defenseinnovationmarketplace.mil/resources/Joint_doctrine_JTF_headquarters.pdf.
- Karim, A. A. (2013). Reflections on security sector and conflict management in Nigeria Fourth Republic. In I. O. Albert & W. A. Eselebor (Eds.), Managing security in a globalised world. Abuja: Society for Peace Studies and Practice.Google Scholar
- Krause, J. (2011). A deadly cycle: Ethno-religious conflict in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Working Paper, Geneva Declaration. Retrieved October 12, 2013, from http://www.genevadeclaration.org/fileadmin/docs/regional-publications/GD-ES-deadly-cycle-Jos.pdf.
- Mejabi, H. O. (2012). An assessment of the joint task force in the Niger Delta (2003–2011). In I. O. Albert (Ed.), A history of social conflict and conflict management in Nigeria (A festschrift for professor Biodun Adediran, published by the peace and conflict studies program). Ibadan, Nigeria: Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan.Google Scholar
- Nwolise, O. B. C. (2006). National Security and sustainable democracy in Nigeria. In E. Ojo (Ed.), Challenges of sustainable development in Nigeria. John Arches (Publishers) Ltd.Google Scholar
- Omede, A. J. (2012). The Nigerian military: Analyzing fifty years of defence and internal military and fifty years of internal security operations in Nigeria (1960–2010). Journal of Social Science, 33(3), 293–303. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/JSS/JSS-33-0-000-12-Web/JSS-33-3-000-12-Abst-PDF/JSS-33-3-293-12-1293-Omede-A-J/JSS-33-3-293-12-1293-Omede-A-J-Tx.pdf.Google Scholar
- Osareti, I., & Akov, E. (2013). Ethno-religious conflict and peace building in Nigeria: The case of Jos, Plateau State. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(1). Retrieved April 20, 2012, from http://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/ajis/article/view/89/86.
- Yake, M. D. (2014). The challenges of the special task force in maintaining internal security in plateau state. An unpublished M.A. dissertation submitted to the Peace and Conflict Studies Programme, Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan.Google Scholar
- Jos Crises: My Story-GOC. Retrieved April 21, 2013., from http://newinfocity.com/index.php?topic=836.0;wap2.
- Securing the Peace of the Country. (2013). Daily Independent Newspaper. 18 April. Retrieved April 26, 2013, from http://dailyindependentnig.com/2013/04/securing-the-peace-of-the-country/.
- Sustainable Peace, security in a plural society extreme challenges to Nigeria internal security. Daily Independent Newspaper. Retrieved April 25, 2013., from http://dailyindependentnig.com/2013/02/sustainable-peace-security-in-a-plural-society-extreme-challenges-to-nigeria-internal-security/.
- The Military and Internal Security. (2012). Nigerian Tribune Newspaper. October 9. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://tribune.com.ng/index.php/editorial/48808-the-military-and-internal-security.