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Taurine 11 pp 71-85 | Cite as

Taurine Enhances the Protective Actions of Fish Oil Against D-Galactosamine-Induced Metabolic Changes and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Injury in the Rat

  • Yuanjun Shen
  • Cesar A. Lau-Cam
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1155)

Abstract

This study has evaluated the effects of a supplementation with taurine (TAU) on the actions of fish oil (FO) against the hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, and hepatic accumulation of lipids and liver damage caused by D-galactosamine (GAL) in the rat. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats (200–225 g), in groups of 6, were orally treated with physiological saline (2.5 mL, control group), FO (60 mg/kg), TAU (2.4 mmol/kg) or FO-TAU for three consecutive days and before a single oral dose of GAL (400 mg/kg) given on day 3. In parallel, rats receiving only GAL on day 3 or N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 2.4 mmol/kg) for 3 days before GAL served as controls. On day 4 blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and used to either measure glucose (GLC) or to obtain plasma fractions. Immediately thereafter, the livers were excised, made into a homogenate in phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4, and centrifuged to obtain clear supernatant. Plasma samples were assayed for their total protein (TP), triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), phospholipids (PLP), free fatty acids (FFA) and total bilirubin (TB) and direct bilirubin (DB) contents, and for the activities of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The liver homogenates were used to measure TG, CHOL, PLP and total lipids (TL) contents. Without exceptions, GAL was found to markedly affect (p < 0.001) all of the experimental parameters examined, with increases occurring in all instances except for the values of the plasma GLC, TP and PLP which were decreased. A pretreatment with either FO or TAU led to significant attenuation of the effects of GAL and which, in most cases, were of similar magnitude. On the other hand, a combined pretreatment with FO plus TAU usually resulted in a greater protection than with either agent alone (p ≤ 0.05). NAC, serving as a reference treatment, was, in most instances, equipotent with FO alone and. in addition, was the only agent that significantly attenuated the increases in both liver weight and liver weight to body weight ratio caused by GAL.

Keywords

Galactosamine Fish oil Taurine Plasma glucose Total protein Bilirubin Alanine aminotransferase Aspartate aminotransferase Alkaline phosphatase Plasma and liver lipids 

Abbreviations

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

ALT

Alanine aminotransferase

AST

Aspartate aminotransferase

CHOL

Cholesterol

DB

Direct bilirubin

FFA

Free fatty acids

FO

Fish oil

GAL

Galactosamine

GLC

Glucose

NAC

N-acetylcysteine

PLP

Phospholipids

TAU

Taurine

TB

Total bilirubin

TL

Total lipids

TP

Total protein

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuanjun Shen
    • 1
  • Cesar A. Lau-Cam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health ProfessionsSt. John’s UniversityJamaicaUSA

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