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Computer Simulations of Transcanal Endoscope Ear Surgery

  • Kazunori Futai
  • Seiji Kakehata
Chapter

Abstract

The surgical field within the middle ear is small, has been, up until recently, largely hidden from view, difficult to visualize, and filled with tiny, delicate anatomical structures. Thus, surgeons operating in the middle ear had to, by necessity, gather critical information only after they expose the surgical field as they perform microscopic ear surgery (MES). This situation made middle ear surgery particularly challenging. However, technological advances achieved from the turn of the twentieth century up to the present day in the fields of computer software and diagnostic imaging have helped to provide ear surgeons with better qualitative and quantitative data than was previously obtainable. Developments in both computer and imaging technology made complete computer simulation of middle ear surgical procedures possible for MES using programs such as Voxel-Man [1] and the OSU virtual temporal bone system [2] for education and training purposes.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazunori Futai
    • 1
  • Seiji Kakehata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of MedicineYamagata UniversityYamagataJapan

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