A Review of Retinoblastoma from the Perspective of Integrative Medicine

  • Bin Li
  • Xiao Zhang
Part of the Advances in Visual Science and Eye Diseases book series (AVSED, volume 3)


Retinoblastoma (RB) is a common primary intraocular malignant tumor in children. The retinoblastoma gene (RB gene) is the first tumor-suppressor gene found in humans. It has been confirmed that there are abnormalities of the RB pathway in all human tumor cells. Throughout the history of retinoblastoma research, material changes have happened in the pathogenesis and treatment concept of RB for more than half a century, which include the following: (1) It was previously considered that the formation of retinoblastoma is due to the absence of function of RB1 tumor-suppressor gene. Related research published by “Lancet Oncology” in 2013 has shown that the activation of MYCN proto-oncogene can also lead to its occurrence. (2) It was considered that the eyeball removal and external radiation therapy are the two cornerstones of RB therapy in traditional treatment. However, in recent years, the individualized comprehensive treatment of chemical volume reduction combined with local therapy has gradually become the first-line treatment.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House, PR of China 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bin Li
    • 1
  • Xiao Zhang
    • 2
  1. 1.Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyPeking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina

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