Aroma Intrinsic Character

  • Joseph William Holloway
  • Jianping Wu


Volume II of Red Meat Science and Production addresses the character of red meat that can be sensed at the time of consumption. The consumer is conditioned to the eating experience, and his/her expectations are set before the actual eating experience through the senses of sight and smell. Therefore, the first discussion of the intrinsic character of red meat that is in this chapter is concerned with, perhaps the threshold sensation setting the stage for the eating experience, aroma. This chapter reviews the scientific literature concerning the consumer’s perception of red meats as delivered through the air, the chemical nature of the red meat responsible for this perception, and production system elements that may be sensitive to this perception.


  1. Bender, A.E., and P.E. Ballance. 1961. A preliminary examination of the flavour of meat extract. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 12: 683–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Campo, M.M., G.R. Nute, S.I. Hughes, M. Enser, J.D. Wood, and R.I. Richardson. 2006. Flavour perception of oxidation in beef. Meat Science 72: 303–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Crocker, E.C. 1948. Flavor of meat. Food Research 13: 179–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Farmer, L.J., and R.L.S. Patterson. 1991. Compounds contributing to meat flavour. Food Chemistry 40: 201–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Farmer, L.J., T.D.J. Hagan, and O. Paraskevas. 1999. Role of selected precursors in meat flavour formation. In Quality attributes of muscle foods, ed. Y.L. Xiong, C.-T. Ho, and F. Shahidi, 159–172. New York: Plenum Publisher Corp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Farmer, L.J., J.T. Kennedy, and T.D.J. Hagan. 2009c. Contribution of aqueous precursors to the odour and flavour of cooked meats. 55th International Congress Meat Science and Technology, PS7 06. Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  7. Gasser, U., and W. Grosch. 1988. Identification of volatile flavour compounds with high aroma values from cooked beef. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung 186: 489–494.Google Scholar
  8. Hayes, N.S., C. Schwartz, K.J. Phelps, P. Borowicz, K.R. Maddock-Carlin, and R.J. Maddock. 2015. The relationship between pre-harvest stress and the carcass characteristics of beef heifers that qualified for kosher designation. Meat Science 100: 134–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holzer, Z., B.W. Berry, A.M. Campbell, A.M. Spanier, and M.B. Solomon. 2004. Effect of koshering and hydronynamic pressure on beef color, odor, and microbial loads. Journal of Muscle Foods 15: 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Khan, M.I., C. Jo, and M.R. Tariq. 2015. Meat flavor precursors and factors influencing flavor precursors—A systematic review. Meat Science 110: 278–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim, E.J., R.I. Richardson, M.R.F. Lee, K. Gibson, and N.D. Scollan. 2010a. Effect of lipid-rich plant extract on the fatty acids composition and meat quality of Belgium-Blue cross bred steers. Proceedings of British Society Animal Science. 131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim, Y.H., E. Huff-Lonergan, J.G. Sebranek, and S.M. Lonergan. 2010c. High-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging system induces lipid and myoglobin oxidation and protein polymerization. Meat Science 85: 759–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mancini, R.A., R. Ramanathan, S.P. Suman, M.K. Konda, P. Joseph, G. Dady, B.M. Naveena, and I. López-López. 2010a. Effects of lactate and modified atmospheric packaging on premature browning in cooked ground beef patties. Meat Science 85: 339–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Matsuishi, M., M. Fujimori, and A. Okitani. 2001. Wagyu beef aroma in Wagyu (Japanese Black cattle) beef preferred by the Japanese over imported beef. Journal of Animal Science 72: 498–504.Google Scholar
  15. Matsuishi, M., J. Kume, Y. Itou, M. Takahashi, M. Arai, H. Nakatomi, and K. Watanabe. 2004. Aroma compounds of Wagyu beefg and imported beef. Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho 75: 409–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Motoyama, M., K. Sasaki, and A. Watanabe. 2016. Wagyu and the factors contributing to its beef quality: A Japanese industry overview. Meat Science 120: 10–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. O’Grady, M.N., F.J. Monahan, R.M. Burke, and P. Allen. 2000. The effect of oxygen level and exogenous α-tocopherol on the oxidative stability of minced beef in modifiedatmosphere packs. Meat Science 55: 39–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Öneç, A., and A. Kaya. 2004. The effects of electrical stunning and percussive captive bolt stunning on meat quality of cattle processed by Turkish slaughter procedures. Meat Science 66: 809–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Resconi, V.C., A. Escudero, J.A. Beltrán, J.L. Olleta, C. Sañudo, and M. Campo. 2012. Color, lipid oxidation, sensory quality, and aroma compounds of beef steaks displayed under different levels of oxygen in a modified atmosphere package. Journal of Food Science 77: S10–S18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Specht, K., and W. Baltes. 1994. Identification of volatile flavor compounds with high aroma values from shallow-fried beef. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42: 2246–2253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Young, O.A., and T.J. Braggins. 1998. Sheep meat odour and flavour. In Flavor of meat, meat products and seafoods, ed. F. Shahidi, 101–130. London: Blackie Academic and Professional.Google Scholar
  22. Young, O.A., G.A. Lane, A. Priolo, and K. Fraser. 2003. Pastoral and species flavour in lambs raised on pasture, lucerne or maize. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83: 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Science Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph William Holloway
    • 1
  • Jianping Wu
    • 2
  1. 1.Animal ScienceTexas A&M UniversityUvaldeUSA
  2. 2.Gansu Academy of Agricultural SciencesLanzhouChina

Personalised recommendations