Commercial Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria with Health Benefits

  • Xin TangEmail author
  • Jichun Zhao


In the 1930s, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) is isolated and intensively cultured by Japanese scientist Dr. Minoru Shirota. Dr. Minoru Shirota initially wanted to find a biological pathway to antagonize pathogenic bacteria. Inspired by Elie Metchnikoff’s theory of longevity in Bulgarian yogurt, Dr. Minoru Shirota worked mainly on the Bulgarian yogurt strain (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) during his studies. However, the results were not satisfactory. Dr. Minoru Shirota found that the Bulgarian yogurt strain could not be stored in the form of live bacteria. This strain was incapable of tolerating the environment of high acid (stomach) and high bile salt (small intestine) in the digestive tract. Since then, Dr. Minoru Shirota had selected high-activity lactic acid bacteria that can pass through the digestive tract from many strains of lactic acid bacteria based on acid- and bile-tolerant salts. Later, this strain of lactic acid bacteria was named Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (Sako et al. 2011).


  1. Abreu MT, Vora P, Faure E, Thomas LS, Arnold ET, Arditi M (2001) Decreased expression of Toll-like receptor-4 and MD-2 correlates with intestinal epithelial cell protection against dysregulated proinflammatory gene expression in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 167(3):1609–1616PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed M, Prasad J, Gill H, Stevenson L, Gopal P (2007) Impact of consumption of different levels of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on the intestinal microflora of elderly human subjects. J Nutr Health Aging 11(1):26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Akama F, Nishino R, Makino S, Kobayashi K, Kamikaseda K, Nagano J, Koga Y (2011) The effect of probiotics on gastric mucosal permeability in humans administered with aspirin. Scand J Gastroenterol 46(7-8):831–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akinbowale OL, Peng H, Grant P, Barton MD (2007) Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance in motile aeromonads and pseudomonads from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in Australia. Int J Antimicrob Agents 30(2):177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alm L, Ryd-Kjellen E, Setterberg G, Blomquist L (1993) Effect of a new fermented milk product “CULTURA” on constipation in geriatric patients. In: 1st lactic acid bacteria computer conference proceedings. Horizon Scientific Press, NorfolkGoogle Scholar
  6. Altermann E, Russell WM, Azcarate-Peril MA, Barrangou R, Buck BL, McAuliffe O, Souther N, Dobson A, Duong T, Callanan M (2005) Complete genome sequence of the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(11):3906–3912PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aragon F, Carino S, Perdigon G, de Moreno de LeBlanca A (2014) The administration of milk fermented by the probiotic Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 exerts an immunomodulatory effect against a breast tumour in a mouse model. Immunobiology 219(6):457–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aragon, F., Carino, S., Perdigon, G., de LeBlanc AdM (2015) Inhibition of growth and metastasis of breast cancer in mice by milk fermented with Lactobacillus casei CRL 431. J Immunother, 38(5), 185-196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arce C, Ramirez-Boo M, Lucena C, Garrido J (2010) Innate immune activation of swine intestinal epithelial cell lines (IPEC-J2 and IPI-2I) in response to LPS from Salmonella typhimurium. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 33(2):161–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aso Y, Akazan H (1992) Prophylactic effect of a Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. BLP Study Group. Urol Int 49(3):125–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aso Y, Akaza H, Kotake T, Tsukamoto T, Imai K, Naito S (1995) Preventive effect of a Lactobacillus casei preparation on the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer in a double-blind trial. The BLP Study Group. Eur Urol 27(2):104–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Azcarate-Peril MA, Altermann E, Hoover-Fitzula RL, Cano RJ, Klaenhammer TR (2004) Identification and inactivation of genetic loci involved with Lactobacillus acidophilus acid tolerance. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(9):5315–5322PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bajzer M, Seeley RJ (2006) Physiology – obesity and gut flora. Nature 444(7122):1009–1010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barefoot SF, Klaenhammer TR (1983) Detection and activity of lactacin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol 45(6):1808–1815PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Barefoot S, Nettles C, Chen Y (1994) Lactacin B, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus. In: Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria. Springer, Berlin, pp 353–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barrangou R, Altermann E, Hutkins R, Cano R, Klaenhammer TR (2003) Functional and comparative genomic analyses of an operon involved in fructooligosaccharide utilization by Lactobacillus acidophilus. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100(15):8957–8962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Basu S, Chatterjee M, Ganguly S, Chandra PK (2007a) Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in persistent diarrhea in Indian children – a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Gastroenterol 41(8):756–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Basu S, Chatterjee M, Ganguly S, Chandra PK (2007b) Efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in acute watery diarrhoea of Indian children: a randomised controlled trial. J Paediatr Child Health 43(12):837–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Basu S, Paul DK, Ganguly S, Chatterjee M, Chandra PK (2009) Efficacy of high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in controlling acute watery diarrhea in Indian children a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Gastroenterol 43(3):208–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bengmark S (2013) Gut microbiota, immune development and function. Pharmacol Res 69(1):87–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Biffi A, Coradini D, Larsen R, Riva L, Di Fronzo G (1997) Antiproliferative effect of fermented milk on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line. Nutrition Cancer 28(1):93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Black F, Andersen P, Ørskov J, Ørskov F, Gaarslev K, Laulund S (1989) Prophylactic efficacy of lactobacilli on traveler’s diarrhea. In: Travel medicine. Springer, Zurich, pp 333–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Black F, Einarsson K, Lidbeck A, Orrhage K, Nord CE (1991) Effect of lactic acid producing bacteria on the human intestinal microflora during ampicillin treatment. Scand J Infect Dis 23(2):247–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blaut M (2002) Relationship of prebiotics and food to intestinal microflora. Eur J Nutr 41(1):i11–i16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bonet MEB, De Petrino SF, Meson O, Perdigon G (2005) Antitumour effect of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 on different experimental tumours. Food Agric Immunol 16(3-4):181–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Borriello SP, Hammes WP, Holzapfel W, Marteau P, Schrezenmeir J, Vaara M, Valtonen V (2003) Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria. Clin Infect Dis 36(6):775–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Breton J, Daniel C, Dewulf J, Pothion S, Froux N, Sauty M, Thomas P, Pot B, Foligné B (2013) Gut microbiota limits heavy metals burden caused by chronic oral exposure. Toxicol Lett 222(2):132–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brown-Esters O, Mc Namara P, Savaiano D (2012) Dietary and biological factors influencing lactose intolerance. Int Dairy J 22(2):98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Calvino-Fernandez M, Parra-Cid T (2010) H. pylori and mitochondrial changes in epithelial cells. The role of oxidative stress. Revista Espanola De Enfermedades Digestivas 102(1):41–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cassani E, Privitera G, Pezzoli G, Pusani C, Madio C, Iorio L, Barichella M (2011) Use of probiotics for the treatment of constipation in Parkinson’s disease patients. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 57(2):117–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Charteris WP, Kelly PM, Morelli L, Collins JK (1998) Antibiotic susceptibility of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus species. J Food Prot 61(12):1636–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chattha KS, Vlasova AN, Kandasamy S, Rajashekara G, Saif LJ (2013) Divergent immunomodulating effects of probiotics on T cell responses to oral attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus infection in a neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model. J Immunol 191(5):2446–2456PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chen S, Cao Y, Ferguson LR, Shu Q, Garg S (2012) Flow cytometric assessment of the protectants for enhanced in vitro survival of probiotic lactic acid bacteria through simulated human gastro-intestinal stresses. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 95(2):345–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chen S, Gao P, Wang J, Sun T, Zhang X, Szeto Ignatius M, Zhang H (2015) Application of Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Bifidobacterium lactis V9 in active lactobacillus drink. Food Ferment Ind 41(11):101–105Google Scholar
  35. Cizeikiene D, Juodeikiene G, Paskevicius A, Bartkiene E (2013) Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria against pathogenic and spoilage microorganism isolated from food and their control in wheat bread. Food Control 31(2):539–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Clarke G, Cryan J, Dinan T, Quigley E (2012) Review article: probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome–focus on lactic acid bacteria. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 35(4):403–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Collado M, Meriluoto J, Salminen S (2007) Role of commercial probiotic strains against human pathogen adhesion to intestinal mucus. Lett Appl Microbiol 45(4):454–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Collado MC, Meriluoto J, Salminen S (2008) Adhesion and aggregation properties of probiotic and pathogen strains. Eur Food Res Technol 226(5):1065–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cui S, Zhao J, Liu X, Chen YQ, Zhang H, Chen W (2016a) Maximum-biomass prediction of homofermentative Lactobacillus. J Biosci Bioeng 122(1):52–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cui S, Zhao J, Zhang H, Chen W (2016b) High-density culture of Lactobacillus plantarum coupled with a lactic acid removal system with anion-exchange resins. Biochem Eng J 115:80–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Daniel C, Poiret S, Goudercourt D, Dennin V, Leyer G, Pot B (2006) Selecting lactic acid bacteria for their safety and functionality by use of a mouse colitis model. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(9):5799–5805PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dantas AB, Jesus VF, Silva R, Almada CN, Esmerino EA, Cappato LP, Silva MC, Raices RSL, Cavalcanti RN, Carvalho CC, Sant’Ana AS, Bolini HMA, Freitas MQ, Cruzt AG (2016) Manufacture of probiotic Minas Frescal cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang. J Dairy Sci 99(1):18–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. de LeBlanc ADM, Castillo NA, Perdigon G (2010) Anti-infective mechanisms induced by a probiotic Lactobacillus strain against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Int J Food Microbiol 138(3):223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. De Preter V, Raemen H, Cloetens L, Houben E, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K (2008) Effect of dietary intervention with different pre- and probiotics on intestinal bacterial enzyme activities. Eur J Clin Nutr 62(2):225–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. De Vuyst L, Vandamme EJ (1994) Antimicrobial potential of lactic acid bacteria. In: Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria. Springer, Berlin, pp 91–142Google Scholar
  46. de Waard R, Garssen J, Bokken G, Vos JG (2002) Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota against gastrointestinal Listeria monocytogenes infection in rats. Int J Food Microbiol 73(1):93–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Deguchi R, Nakaminami H, Rimbara E, Noguchi N, Sasatsu M, Suzuki T, Matsushima M, Koike J, Igarashi M, Ozawa H, Fukuda R, Takagi A (2012) Effect of pretreatment with Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 27(5):888–892PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Delgado S, Flórez AB, Mayo B (2005) Antibiotic susceptibility of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species from the human gastrointestinal tract. Curr Microbiol 50(4):202–207PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ding W, Wang H, Griffiths MW (2005) Probiotics down-regulate flaA σ28 promoter in Campylobacter jejuni. J Food Prot 68(11):2295–2300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dobson A, Sanozky-Dawes R, Klaenhammer T (2007) Identification of an operon and inducing peptide involved in the production of lactacin B by Lactobacillus acidophilus. J Appl Microbiol 103(5):1766–1778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dong C, Zhang H, Zhao S, Bao Q (2008) Development a new probiotic fresh cheese with Lactobacillus casei Zhang. Food Ferment Ind 34(6):140–145Google Scholar
  52. Dong H, Rowland I, Thomas LV, Yaqoob P (2013) Immunomodulatory effects of a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota in healthy older volunteers. Eur J Nutr 52(8):1853–1863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dunn SR, Simenhoff ML, Ahmed KE, Gaughan WJ, Eltayeb BO, Fitzpatrick M-ED, Emery SM, Ayres JW, Holt KE (1998) Effect of oral administration of freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus on small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with end stage kidney disease: reducing uremic toxins and improving nutrition. Int Dairy J 8(5):545–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ebel B, Lemetais G, Beney L, Cachon R, Sokol H, Langella P, Gervais P (2014) Impact of probiotics on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54(2):175–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. El-Gawad IAA, El-Sayed E, Hafez S, El-Zeini H, Saleh F (2005) The hypocholesterolaemic effect of milk yoghurt and soy-yoghurt containing bifidobacteria in rats fed on a cholesterol-enriched diet. Int Dairy J 15(1):37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ellegaard J, Peterslund N, Black F (1992) Infection prophlaxis in neutropenic patients by oral administration of Lactobacilli. In: International symposium on infections in the immunocompromised hostGoogle Scholar
  57. Endo H, Tamura K, Fukasawa T, Kanegae M, Koga J (2012) Comparison of fructooligosaccharide utilization by Lactobacillus and Bacteroides species. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 76(1):176–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Engelbrektson AL, Korzenik JR, Sanders ME, Clement BG, Leyer G, Klaenhammer TR, Kitts CL (2006) Analysis of treatment effects on the microbial ecology of the human intestine. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 57(2):239–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Eskesen D, Jespersen L, Michelsen B, Whorwell PJ, Mueller-Lissner S, Morberg CM (2015) Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis, BB-12 (R), on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Br J Nutr 114(10):1638–1646PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Falasca K, Vecchiet J, Ucciferri C, Di Nicola M, D’Angelo C, Reale M (2015) Effect of probiotic supplement on cytokine levels in HIV-infected individuals: a preliminary study. Nutrients 7(10):8335–8347PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Fayol-Messaoudi D, Berger UN, Coconnier-Polter MH, Lievin-Le Moal V, Servin AL (2005) pH-, lactic acid-, and non-lactic acid-dependent activities of probiotic lactobacilli against Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Appl Environ Microbiol 71(10):6008–6013PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fazeli M, Hassanzadeh P, Alaei S (2011) Cadmium chloride exhibits a profound toxic effect on bacterial microflora of the mice gastrointestinal tract. Hum Exp Toxicol 30(2):152–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fooks LJ, Gibson GR (2003) Mixed culture fermentation studies on the effects of synbiotics on the human intestinal pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli. Anaerobe 9(5):231–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Forsyth CB, Farhadi A, Jakate SM, Tang Y, Shaikh M, Keshavarzian A (2009) Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis. Alcohol 43(2):163–172PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fujimura S, Kato S, Oda M, Miyahara M, Ito Y, Kimura K, Kawamura T, Ohnuma M, Tateno H, Watanabe A (2006) Detection of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 strain administered with yogurt drink in gastric mucus layer in humans. Lett Appl Microbiol 43(5):578–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fujimura S, Watanabe A, Kimura K, Kaji M (2012) Probiotic mechanism of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 Strain against Helicobacter pylori. J Clin Microbiol 50(3):1134–1136PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fukushima Y, Kawata Y, Hara H, Terada A, Mitsuoka T (1998) Effect of a probiotic formula on intestinal immunoglobulin A production in healthy children. Int J Food Microbiol 42(1-2):39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Galdeano CM, Perdigon G (2006) The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus casei induces activation of the gut mucosal immune system through innate immunity. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13(2):219–226PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gálvez A, López RL, Pulido RP, Burgos MJG (2014) Application of lactic acid bacteria and their bacteriocins for food biopreservation. In: Food biopreservation. Springer, New York, pp 15–22Google Scholar
  70. Gan H, Ouyang Q, Jia D, Xia Q (2002) Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and its relationship with cytokine gene expression in colonic mucosa of ulcerative colitis patients. Zhonghua nei ke za zhi 41(4):252–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gaon D, Garmendia C, Murrielo NO, Games AD, Cerchio A, Quintas R, Gonzalez SN, Oliver G (2002) Effect of Lactobacillus strains (L-casei and L-acidophilus strains CERELA) on bacterial overgrowth-related chronic diarrhea. Medicina-Buenos Aires 62(2):159–163Google Scholar
  72. Gerold G, Zychlinsky A, Juana L (2007) What is the role of Toll-like receptors in bacterial infections? In: Seminars in immunology. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 41–47Google Scholar
  73. Gilliland S, Nelson C, Maxwell C (1985) Assimilation of cholesterol by Lactobacillus acidophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol 49(2):377–381PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Gobinath D, Prapulla SG (2014) Permeabilized probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum as a source of β-galactosidase for the synthesis of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides. Biotechnol Lett 36(1):153–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Goldin BR, Gorbach SL (1984a) Alterations of the intestinal microflora by diet, oral antibiotics, and Lactobacillus: decreased production of free amines from aromatic nitro compounds, azo dyes, and glucuronides. J Natl Cancer Inst 73(3):689–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Goldin BR, Gorbach SL (1984b) The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus and antibiotics on intestinal bacterial activity and chemical induction of large bowel tumors. Dev Ind Microbiol 25:139–150Google Scholar
  77. Goldin BR, Swenson L, Dwyer J, Sexton M, Gorbach SL (1980) Effect of diet and Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements on human fecal bacterial enzymes. J Natl Cancer Inst 64(2):255–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gong Z, Shen H, Wang Q, Yang X, Xie H, Zhao ZK (2013) Efficient conversion of biomass into lipids by using the simultaneous saccharification and enhanced lipid production process. Biotechnol Biofuels 6(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gonzalez SN, Cardozo R, Apella MC, Oliver G (1995) Biotherapeutic role of fermented milk. Biotherapy 8(2):129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gopal PK, Prasad J, Smart J, Gill HS (2001a) In vitro adherence properties of Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20 and Bifidobacterium lactis DR10 strains and their antagonistic activity against an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Int J Food Microbiol 67(3):207–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gopal PK, Sullivan PA, Smart JB (2001b) Utilisation of galacto-oligosaccharides as selective substrates for growth by lactic acid bacteria including Bifidobacterium lactis DR10 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus DR20. Int Dairy J 11(1):19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gopal PK, Prasad J, Gill HS (2003) Effects of the consumption of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10 TM) and galacto-oligosaccharides on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract in human subjects. Nutr Res 23(10):1313–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gopal P, Dekker J, Prasad J, Pillidge C (2005) Development and commercialisation of Fonterra’s probiotic strains. Aust J Dairy Technol 60(2):173Google Scholar
  84. Gotteland M, Cruchet S (2003) Suppressive effect of frequent ingestion of Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 on Helicobacter pylori colonization in asymptomatic volunteers. J Antimicrob Chemother 51(5):1317–1319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Goyal N, Rishi P, Shukla G (2013) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG antagonizes Giardia intestinalis induced oxidative stress and intestinal disaccharidases: an experimental study. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 29(6):1049–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Grangette C, Nutten S, Palumbo E, Morath S, Hermann C, Dewulf J, Pot B, Hartung T, Hols P, Mercenier A (2005) Enhanced antiinflammatory capacity of a Lactobacillus plantarum mutant synthesizing modified teichoic acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(29):10321–10326PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Guarino A, Guandalini S, Vecchio AL (2015) Probiotics for prevention and treatment of diarrhea. J Clin Gastroenterol 49:S37–S45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Guo Z, Wang J, Yan L, Chen W, Liu X-m, Zhang H-p (2009) In vitro comparison of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a potential new probiotic, with selected probiotic strains. Lwt-Food Sci Technol, 42(10):1640–1646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Halttunen T, Salminen S, Tahvonen R (2007) Rapid removal of lead and cadmium from water by specific lactic acid bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 114(1):30–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Han L, Man C, Lv X, Wang M, Zhang G, Liu Y, Jiang Y (2011) Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects host adhesion-related gene expression after adhering to host. Acta Microbiol Sin 51(5):609–614Google Scholar
  91. Hatcher GE, Lambrecht RS (1993) Augmentation of macrophage phagocytic activity by cell-free extracts of selected lactic acid-producing bacteria. J Dairy Sci 76(9):2485–2492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Haukioja A, Yli-Knuuttila H, Loimaranta V, Kari K, Ouwehand A, Meurman JH, Tenovuo J (2006) Oral adhesion and survival of probiotic and other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in vitro. Oral Microbiol Immunol 21(5):326–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. He R (2010) A brief report on the study of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. Microbiology 37(5):783–783Google Scholar
  94. HePing Z, QiJin Z, GuiQiang REN, QiuHua BAO (2007) The antagonism of Lactobacillus casei Zhang to pathogenic Escherichia coli in mice and the influence on the microbial population in gut. Microbiology 34(3):447–450Google Scholar
  95. Hori T, Kiyoshima J, Shida K, Yasui H (2001) Effect of intranasal administration of Lactobacillus casei Shirota on influenza virus infection of upper respiratory tract in mice. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8(3):593–597PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Hougaard AB, Pindstrup H, Arneborg N, Andersen ML, Skibsted LH (2016) Free radical formation by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is enhanced by antioxidants and decreased by catalase. Food Res Int 79:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hove H, Nordgaard-Andersen I, Mortensen PB (1994) Effect of lactic acid bacteria on the intestinal production of lactate and short-chain fatty acids, and the absorption of lactose. Am J Clin Nutr 59(1):74–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Igarashi M, Nagano J, Tsuda A, Suzuki T, Koike J, Uchida T, Matsushima M, Mine T, Koga Y (2014) Correlation between the serum pepsinogen I level and the symptom degree in proton pump inhibitor-users administered with a probiotic. Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland) 7(7):754–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ji H, Wu Z, Han J, Zhou F (2013) Study on Bacteriocin production of Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III. Food Res Dev 34(7):6–12Google Scholar
  100. Jiang T, Savaiano D (1995) Lactobacilli supplementation and Short-Chain Fatty-Acid (Scfa) production by human fecal bacteria grown in continuous-culture. Gastroenterology. WB Saunders Co Independence Square West Curtis Center, STE 300, Philadelphia, PA 19106-3399, pp A293–A293Google Scholar
  101. Jiang T, Savaiano DA (1997) In vitro lactose fermentation by human colonic bacteria is modified by Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation. J Nutr 127(8):1489–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kaga C, Takagi A, Kano M, Kado S, Kato I, Sakai M, Miyazaki K, Nanno M, Ishikawa F, Ohashi Y, Toi M (2013) Lactobacillus casei Shirota enhances the preventive efficacy of soymilk in chemically induced breast cancer. Cancer Sci 104(11):1508–1514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kankainen M, Paulin L, Tynkkynen S, von Ossowski I, Reunanen J, Partanen P, Satokari R, Vesterlund S, Hendrickx APA, Lebeer S, De Keersmaecker SCJ, Vanderleyden J, Hamalainen T, Laukkanen S, Salovuori N, Ritari J, Alatalo E, Korpela R, Mattila-Sandholm T, Lassig A, Hatakka K, Kinnunen KT, Karjalainen H, Saxelin M, Laakso K, Surakka A, Palva A, Salusjarvi T, Auvinen P, de Vos WM (2009) Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human-mucus binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(40):17193–17198PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kawai T, Takagi A, Uemura N, Inoue K, Nakajima S, Koga Y (2006) Randomized double blind controlled trial of the efficacy of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716(LG21) for suppression of Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter 11:40–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kimura K (2004) Health benefits of probiotics: probiotics for Helicobacter pylori infection. Food Sci Technol Res 10(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kotani S, Chiba H, Takeuchi K, Uchida K, Shimizu T, Sonoguchi T (1961) A study of the influence of cow’s milk fermented by some kind of ‘Family Lactobacillaceae ’ upon human body [in Japanese]. Jpn J Public Hygiene 8:29–53Google Scholar
  107. Kumar K, Sastry N, Polaki H, Mishra V (2015) Colon cancer prevention through probiotics: an overview. J Cancer Sci Ther 7:081–092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Laake K, Line P, Aabakken L, Løtveit T, Bakka A, Eide J, Roseth A, Grzyb K, Bjørneklett A, Vatn M (2003) Assessment of mucosal inflammation and circulation in response to probiotics in patients operated with ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 38(4):409–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Laličić-Petronijević J, Popov-Raljić J, Obradović D, Radulović Z, Paunović D, Petrušić M, Pezo L (2015) Viability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 and their impact on sensory and rheological properties of milk and dark chocolates during storage for 180 days. J Funct Foods 15:541–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Larsen CN, Nielsen S, Kaestel P, Brockmann E, Bennedsen M, Christensen HR, Eskesen DC, Jacobsen BL, Michaelsen KF (2006) Dose-response study of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CRL-341 in healthy young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 60(11):1284–1293PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Lee YK, Salminen S (2009) Handbook of probiotics and prebiotics. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  112. Li H, Yan L, Wang J, Zhang Q, Zhou Q, Sun T, Chen W, Zhang H (2012) Fermentation characteristics of six probiotic strains in soymilk. Ann Microbiol 62(4):1473–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lin M-Y, Savaiano D, Harlander S (1991) Influence of nonfermented dairy products containing bacterial starter cultures on lactose maldigestion in humans. J Dairy Sci 74(1):87–95PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Lin M-Y, Yen C-L, Chen S-H (1998) Management of lactose maldigestion by consuming milk containing lactobacilli. Dig Dis Sci 43(1):133–137PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Lin X, Chen X, Chen Y, Jiang W, Chen H (2015) The effect of five probiotic lactobacilli strains on the growth and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. Oral Dis 21(1):E128–E134PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Liu C (2009) Prospective studies on safety and immunomodulatory properties of probiotics used in marketing food and drugs. Shanghai Jiaotong UniversityGoogle Scholar
  117. Liu J, Wang Y, Wu Z, Guo B (2008) Studies on cholesterol removal by Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III strain. Ind Microbiol 38(5):17–21Google Scholar
  118. Liu J, Qu W, Kadiiska MB (2009) Role of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity and carcinogenesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238(3):209–214PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Liu Y, Yu C, Wang R (2011) Effect of Lactobacillus plantarumon fermentation on cholesterol content in Yogurt. J Heilongjiang Bayi Agric University 23(6):56–59Google Scholar
  120. Liu Y, Li Y, Liu K, Shen J (2014) Exposing to cadmium stress cause profound toxic effect on microbiota of the mice intestinal tract. PLoS One 9(2):e85323PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mahantesha T, Reddy KMP, Kumar NHP, Nara A, Ashwin D, Buddiga V (2015) Comparative study of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink on salivary streptococcus mutans levels in 6–12 years age group children. J Int Oral Health JIOH 7(9):47–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Man C, Li L, Han L, Jiang Y (2014) Adherence and colonization capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. China Dairy Industry 42(7):24–26Google Scholar
  123. Matsubara V, Silva E, Paula C, Ishikawa K, Nakamae A (2012) Treatment with probiotics in experimental oral colonization by Candida albicans in murine model (DBA/2). Oral Dis 18(3):260–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Matsuzaki T, Yamazaki R, Hashimoto S, Yokokura T (1998) The effect of oral feeding of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on immunoglobulin E production in mice. J Dairy Sci 81(1):48–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mattar R, de Campos Mazo DF, Carrilho FJ (2012) Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors. Clin Exp Gastroenterol 5:113PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Matyar F, Kaya A, Dinçer S (2008) Antibacterial agents and heavy metal resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from seawater, shrimp and sediment in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey. Sci Total Environ 407(1):279–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mazlyn MM, Nagarajah LH-L, Fatimah A, Norimah AK, Goh K-L (2013) Effects of a probiotic fermented milk on functional constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 28(7):1141–1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Merenstein DJ, Tan TP, Molokin A, Smith KH, Roberts RF, Shara NM, Mete M, Sanders ME, Solano-Aguilar G (2015) Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12-supplemented yogurt in healthy adults on antibiotics: a phase I safety study. Gut Microbes 6(1):66–77PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mesrine S, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault M-C (2013) Re: “Dairy-food, calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D intake and endometriosis: a prospective cohort study”. Am J Epidemiol 178(4):664–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Miettinen M, Vuopio-Varkila J, Varkila K (1996) Production of human tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 is induced by lactic acid bacteria. Infect Immun 64(12):5403–5405PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. Misselwitz B, Pohl D, Frühauf H, Fried M, Vavricka SR, Fox M (2013) Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. United European Gastroenterol J 1(3):151–159PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Miyazaki K, Matsuzaki T (2008) Health properties of milk fermented with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS). In: Edward RF (ed) Handbook of fermented functional foods, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 165–172Google Scholar
  133. Montes R, Bayless T, Saavedra J, Perman J (1995) Effect of milks inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus or a yogurt starter culture in lactose-maldigesting children. J Dairy Sci 78(8):1657–1664PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Morimoto K, Takeshita T, Nanno M, Tokudome S, Nakayama K (2005) Modulation of natural killer cell activity by supplementation of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei in habitual smokers. Prev Med 40(5):589–594PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. Mustapha A, Jiang T, Savaiano DA (1997) Improvement of lactose digestion by humans following ingestion of unfermented acidophilus milk: influence of bile sensitivity, lactose transport, and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus. J Dairy Sci 80(8):1537–1545PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. Nagao F, Nakayama M, Muto T, Okumura K (2000) Effects of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the immune system in healthy human subjects. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64(12):2706–2708PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Nord CE, Lidbeck A, Orrhage K, Sjöstedt S (1997) Oral supplementation with lactic acid-producing bacteria during intake of clindamycin. Clin Microbiol Infect 3(1):124–132PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Novotny Nunez I, Maldonado Galdeano C, de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Perdigon G (2014) Evaluation of immune response, microbiota, and blood markers after probiotic bacteria administration in obese mice induced by a high-fat diet. Nutrition 30(11-12):1423–1432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Novotny Nunez I, Maldonado Galdeano C, de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Perdigon G (2015) Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 administration decreases inflammatory cytokines in a diet-induced obese mouse model. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif) 31(7–8):1000–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ogawa T, Hirai R, Nakakuni H, Sato Y, Wakisaka S, Tachibana M, Tominaga H, Kurata M, Matsubayashi K (1974) Clinical experience with the use of the high concentration lactic acid bacteria preparation LP-201 to treat habitual constipation. Clin Rep 8:1085–1092Google Scholar
  141. Ohara T, Yoshino K, Kitajima M (2010) Possibility of preventing colorectal carcinogenesis with probiotics. Hepato-Gastroenterology 57(104):1411–1415PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Ohashi Y, Nakai S, Tsukamoto T, Masumori N, Akaza H, Miyanaga N, Kitamura T, Kawabe K, Kotake T, Kuroda M, Naito S, Koga H, Saito Y, Nomata K, Kitagawa M, Aso Y (2002) Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer. Urol Int 68(4):273–280PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Ojetti V, Bruno G, Ainora ME, Gigante G, Rizzo G, Roccarina D, Gasbarrini A (2012) Impact of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation on anti-helicobacter pylori levofloxacin-based second-line therapy. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2012:740381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Ouwehand A, Leyer G, Carcano D (2008) Tract infection symptoms in 3-TO 5-year-old children. Pediatrics 121:S115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ouwehand AC, Tiihonen K, Saarinen M, Putaala H, Rautonen N (2009) Influence of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and lactitol on healthy elderly: intestinal and immune parameters. Br J Nutr 101(03):367–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Paineau D, Carcano D, Leyer G, Darquy S, Alyanakian MA, Simoneau G, Bergmann JF, Brassart D, Bornet F, Ouwehand AC (2008) Effects of seven potential probiotic strains on specific immune responses in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 53(1):107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Pant N, Marcotte H, Bruessow H, Svensson L, Hammarstrom L (2007) Effective prophylaxis against rotavirus diarrhea using a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and antibodies. BMC Microbiol 7:86PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Patil AB, Ghetia VR (2014) Exploring role of probiotics in clinical practice. Int J Food Nutr Diet 2(1):5Google Scholar
  149. PengFei GAO, Yan LI, WenJing Z, Xia C, JingLi CUI, Lei Z, HePing Z (2008) Study on the optimization of enrichment medium of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. Microbiology 35(4):623–628Google Scholar
  150. Perdigon G, Galdeano CM, Valdez JC, Medici M (2002) Interaction of lactic acid bacteria with the gut immune system. Eur J Clin Nutr 56:S21–S26PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Pessi T, Sutas Y, Hurme H, Isolauri E (2000) Interleukin-10 generation in atopic children following oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Clin Exp Allergy 30(12):1804–1808PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Phuapradit P, Varavithya W, Vathanophas K, Sangchai R, Podhipak A, Suthutvoravut U, Nopchinda S, Chantraruksa V, Haschke F (1999) Reduction of rotavirus infection in children receiving bifidobacteria-supplemented formula. J Med Assoc Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 82(Suppl 1):S43–S48Google Scholar
  153. Piirainen L, Haahtela S, Helin T, Korpela R, Haahtela T, Vaarala O (2008) Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on rBet v1 and rMal d1 specific IgA in the saliva patients with birch pollen allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 100(4):338–342PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Plockova M, Tomanova J, Chumchalova J (1997) Inhibition of mould growth and spore production by Lactobacillus acidophilus CH5 metabolites. Bulletin Potravinarskeho Vyskumu (Slovak Republic)Google Scholar
  155. Prasad J, Gill H, Smart J, Gopal PK (1998) Selection and characterisation of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for use as probiotics. Int Dairy J 8(12):993–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Qin H, Gao Z (2005) Research progress on tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells in intestinal barrier. World Chinese J Digestol 13(4):443–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ranadheera CS, Evans C, Adams M, Baines S (2012) In vitro analysis of gastrointestinal tolerance and intestinal cell adhesion of probiotics in goat’s milk ice cream and yogurt. Food Res Int 49(2):619–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Remagni MC, Paladino M, Locci F, Romeo FV, Zago M, Povolo M, Contarini G, Carminati D (2013) Cholesterol removal capability of lactic acid bacteria and related cell membrane fatty acid modifications. Folia Microbiol 58(6):443–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Rizzardini G, Eskesen D, Calder PC, Capetti A, Jespersen L, Clerici M (2012) Evaluation of the immune benefits of two probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis, BB-12 (R) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei, L. casei 431 (R) in an influenza vaccination model: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr 107(6):876–884PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Rousseaux C, Thuru X, Gelot A, Barnich N, Neut C, Dubuquoy L, Dubuquoy C, Merour E, Geboes K, Chamaillard M (2007) Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates intestinal pain and induces opioid and cannabinoid receptors. Nat Med 13(1):35–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rui-ting DU, Ya TUO, He-ping Z (2009) Influence of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on immunological function of intestinal mucosa associated lymphoid tissues of mice. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica 31(4):396–399Google Scholar
  162. Ruiz L, Margolles A, Sánchez B (2013) Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Front Microbiol 4:396PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Saarela M, Maukonen J, von Wright A, Vilpponen-Salmela T, Patterson AJ, Scott KP, Hämynen H, Mättö J (2007) Tetracycline susceptibility of the ingested Lactobacillus acidophilus LaCH-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 strains during antibiotic/probiotic intervention. Int J Antimicrob Agents 29(3):271–280PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Sakai T, Kubota H, Gawad A, Gheyle L, Ramael S, Oishi K (2015) Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on constipation-related symptoms and haemorrhoids in women during puerperium. Benefic Microbes 6(3):253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Sakamoto I, Igarashi M, Kimura K, Takagi A, Miwa T, Koga Y (2001) Suppressive effect of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21) on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. J Antimicrob Chemother 47(5):709–710PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. Sako T, Kneifel W, Salminen S (2011) The world’s oldest probiotic: perspectives for health claims. Wiley-Blackwell, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  167. Salminen S, Laine M, Vonwright A, Vuopio-Varkila J, Korhonen T, Mattila-Sandholm T (1996) Development of selection criteria for probiotic strains to assess their potential in functional foods: a Nordic and European approach. Biosci Microflora 15(2):61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Salminen MK, Tynkkynen S, Rautelin H, Saxelin M, Vaara M, Ruutu P, Sarna S, Valtonen V, Jarvinen A (2002) Lactobacillus bacteremia during a rapid increase in Probiotic use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Finland. Clin Infect Dis 35(10):1155–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Salminen MK, Tynkkynen S, Rautelin H, Poussa T, Saxelin M, Ristola M, Valtonen V, Jarvinen A (2004) The efficacy and safety of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on prolonged, noninfectious diarrhea in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Hiv Clinical Trials 5(4):183–191PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Sanders ME (2006) Summary of probiotic activities of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019. J Clin Gastroenterol 40(9):776–783PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  171. Sanders M, Klaenhammer T (2001) Invited review: the scientific basis of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM functionality as a probiotic. J Dairy Sci 84(2):319–331PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. Santos FL, Ferreira CL, Costa NMB, Santos NT (2013) Effect of three Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Afr J Microbiol Res 7(33):4291–4296Google Scholar
  173. Sazawal S, Dhingra U, Sarkar A, Dhingra A, Deb S, Marwah D, Menon V, Black R (2004) Efficacy of Milk Fortified with a Probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR-10TM) and Prebiotic Galacto-oligosaccharides in prevention of morbidity–a community based double masked randomized trial. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 13:371–374Google Scholar
  174. Schillinger U (2014). Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria. In: Biotechnology and food safety: proceedings of the second international symposium. Elsevier, p 55Google Scholar
  175. Sgouras D, Maragkoudakis P, Petraki K, Martinez-Gonzalez B, Eriotou E, Michopoulos S, Kalantzopoulos G, Tsakalidou E, Mentis Α (2004) In vitro and in vivo inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota. Appl Environ Microbiol 70(1):518–526PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Sheu BS, Wu JJ, Lo CY, Wu HW, Chen JH, Lin YS, Lin MD (2002) Impact of supplement with Lactobacillus-and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 16(9):1669–1675PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sheu B-S, Cheng H-C, Kao A-W, Wang S-T, Yang Y-J, Yang H-B, Wu J-J (2006) Pretreatment with Lactobacillus-and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt can improve the efficacy of quadruple therapy in eradicating residual Helicobacter pylori infection after failed triple therapy. Am J Clin Nutr 83(4):864–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Shida K, Takahashi R, Iwadate E, Takamizawa K, Yasui H, Sato T, Habu S, Hachimura S, Kaminogawa S (2002) Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota suppresses serum immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G1 responses and systemic anaphylaxis in a food allergy model. Clin Exp Allergy 32(4):563–570PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Shimizu S, Shibamoto G (1964) Clinical observation of the effects of a strain of acidophilic lactic acid bacteria (Yakult strain) on the intestinal gas production. P Tokyo Med Coll 21:1–5Google Scholar
  180. Shimizu T, Haruna H, Hisada K, Yamashiro Y (2002) Effects of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21) on Helicobacter pylori infection in children. J Antimicrob Chemother 50(4):617–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Shirota M, Aso K, Iwabuchi A (1966) Studies on intestinal microflora. 1. Its constitution in healthy infants and the effect of oral administration of L. acidophilus strain Shirota. Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi 21(5):274–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Shu Q, Zhou JS, Rutherfurd KJ, Birtles MJ, Prasad J, Gopal PK, Gill HS (1999) Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019) have no adverse effects on the health of mice. Int Dairy J 9(11):831–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Shu Q, Lin H, Rutherfurd KJ, Fenwick SG, Prasad J, Gopal PK, Gill HS (2000) Dietary Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019) enhances resistance to oral Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. Microbiol Immunol 44(3):213–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Shu Q, Qu F, Gill HS (2001) Probiotic treatment using Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 reduces weanling diarrhea associated with rotavirus and Escherichia coli infection in a piglet model. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 33(2):171–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Smith TJ, Rigassio-Radler D, Denmark R, Haley T, Touger-Decker R (2013) Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG (R) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis BB-12 (R) on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections. Br J Nutr 109(11):1999–2007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sohail A, Turner MS, Coombes A, Bhandari B (2013) The viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM following double encapsulation in alginate and maltodextrin. Food Bioprocess Technol 6(10):2763–2769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Spanhaak S, Havenaar R, Schaafsma G (1998) The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 52(12):899–907PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Srinivasan R, Meyer R, Padmanabhan R, Britto J (2006) Clinical safety of Lactobacillus casei shirota as a probiotic in critically ill children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 42(2):171–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Stoyanova L, Ustyugova E, Netrusov A (2012) Antibacterial metabolites of lactic acid bacteria: their diversity and properties. Appl Biochem Microbiol 48(3):229–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Sui J, Leighton S, Busta F, Brady L (2002) 16S ribosomal DNA analysis of the faecal lactobacilli composition of human subjects consuming a probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM®. J Appl Microbiol 93(5):907–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sun L, Mo B, Jiang N (2005) Influence of Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III on serum cholesterol and hyperlipoidemia in Rats. J Dairy Sci Technol 26(4):150–152Google Scholar
  192. Taipale T, Pienihakkinen K, Isolauri E, Larsen C, Brockmann E, Alanen P, Jokela J, Soderling E (2011) Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 in reducing the risk of infections in infancy. Br J Nutr 105(3):409–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Taipale T, Pienihakkinen K, Salminen S, Jokela J, Soderling E (2012) Bifidobacterium animas subsp lactis BB-12 administration in early childhood: a randomized clinical trial of effects on oral colonization by mutans streptococci and the probiotic. Caries Res 46(1):69–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Taipale T, Pienihakkinen K, Alanen P, Jokela J, Soderling E (2013) Administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 in early childhood: a post-trial effect on caries occurrence at four years of age. Caries Res 47(5):364–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Tamura A, Kumai H, Nakamichi N, Sugiyama T, Deguchi R, Takagi A, Koga Y (2006) Suppression of Helicobacter pylori-induced interleukin-8 production in vitro and within the gastric mucosa by a live Lactobacillus strain. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 21(9):1399–1406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Tejada-Simon M, Lee J, Ustunol Z, Pestka J (1999) Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium to potentiate immunoglobulin a responses to cholera toxin in mice. J Dairy Sci 82(4):649–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Thompson LU, Jenkins D, Amer M, Reichert R, Jenkins A, Kamulsky J (1982) The effect of fermented and unfermented milks on serum cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 36(6):1106–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Toiviainen A, Jalasvuori H, Lahti E, Gursoy U, Salminen S, Fontana M, Flannagan S, Eckert G, Kokaras A, Paster B, Soderling E (2015) Impact of orally administered lozenges with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 on the number of salivary mutans streptococci, amount of plaque, gingival inflammation and the oral microbiome in healthy adults. Clin Oral Investig 19(1):77–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Tötemeyer S, Foster N, Kaiser P, Maskell DJ, Bryant CE (2003) Toll-like receptor expression in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Infect Immun 71(11):6653–6657PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Uchida M, Kurakazu K (2004) Yogurt containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 exerts gastroprotective action against acute gastric lesion and antral ulcer in rats. J Pharmacol Sci 96(1):84–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Uchida M, Shmizu K, Kurakazu K (2010) Yogurt containing Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21 yogurt) accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in Rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74(9):1891–1894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Usai-Satta P, Scarpa M, Oppia F, Cabras F (2012) Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: what should be the best clinical management? World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Therapeutics 3(3):29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. van Baarlen P, Wells JM, Kleerebezem M (2013) Regulation of intestinal homeostasis and immunity with probiotic lactobacilli. Trends Immunol 34(5):208–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, Hanner TL, Lupo JV, Young RJ (1999) Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr 135(5):564–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Varcoe JJ, Krejcarek G, Busta F, Brady L (2003) Prophylactic feeding of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM to mice attenuates overt colonic hyperplasia. J Food Prot 66(3):457–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Villena J, Barbieri N, Salva S, Herrera M, Alvarez S (2009) Enhanced immune response to pneumococcal infection in malnourished mice nasally treated with heat-killed Lactobacillus casei. Microbiol Immunol 53(11):636–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Vlieger AM, Robroch A, van Buuren S, Kiers J, Rijkers G, Benninga MA, Biesebeke Rt (2009) Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr 102(6):869–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Wagner RD, Warner T, Roberts L, Farmer J, Dohnalek M, Hilty M, Balish E (1998) Variable biotherapeutic effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus isolates on orogastric and systemic candidiasis in immunodeficient mice. Rev Iberoam Micol 15:271–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Wagner RD, Dohnalek M, Hilty M, Vazquez-Torres A, Balish E (2000) Effects of probiotic bacteria on humoral immunity to Candida albicans in immunodeficient bg/bg-nu/nu and bg/bg-nu/+ mice. Rev Iberoam Micol 17(2):55–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Wang K-Y, Li S-N, Liu C-S, Perng D-S, Su Y-C, Wu D-C, Jan C-M, Lai C-H, Wang T-N, Wang W-M (2004) Effects of ingesting Lactobacillus-and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori. Am J Clin Nutr 80(3):737–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Wang J, Guo Z, Zhang Q, Yan L, Chen W, Liu XM, Zhang HP (2009) Fermentation characteristics and transit tolerance of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang in soymilk and bovine milk during storage. J Dairy Sci 92(6):2468–2476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Wang Y, Li Y, Xie J, Zhang Y, Wang J, Sun X, Zhang H (2013a) Protective effects of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang against endotoxin- and D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. Int Immunopharmacol 15(1):30–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Wang Y, Xie J, Wang N, Li Y, Sun X, Zhang Y, Zhang H (2013b) Lactobacillus casei Zhang modulate cytokine and Toll-like receptor expression and beneficially regulate poly I:C-induced immune responses in RAW264.7 macrophages. Microbiol Immunol 57(1):54–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Wang Y, Xie J, Li Y, Dong S, Liu H, Chen J, Wang Y, Zhao S, Zhang Y, Zhang H (2016) Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and hepatic inflammation in a rat model of acute liver failure. Eur J Nutr 55(2):821–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Wildt S, Munck LK, Vinter-Jensen L, Hanse BF, Nordgaard-Lassen I, Christensen S, Avnstroem S, Rasmussen SN, Rumessen JJ (2006) Probiotic treatment of collagenous colitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 12(5):395–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Wong S, Jamous A, O’Driscoll J, Sekhar R, Weldon M, Yau CY, Hirani SP, Grimble G, Forbes A (2014) A Lactobacillus casei Shirota probiotic drink reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in patients with spinal cord injuries: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr 111(4):672–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Wright K, Wright H, Murray M (2015) Probiotic treatment for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in geriatric patients: a multicentre randomised controlled pilot study. Australas J Ageing 34(1):38–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Wu S, Yuan L, Zhang Y, Liu F, Li G, Wen K, Kocher J, Yang X, Sun J (2013) Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG mono-association suppresses human rotavirus-induced autophagy in the gnotobiotic piglet intestine. Gut Pathogens 5:22PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Xu Z, Guo B, Wang Y, Chen W, Zhang H (2006) Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III’s adjustion to the intestinal microflora in rats. China Dairy Industry 34(2):10–12Google Scholar
  220. Ya T, Zhang Q, Chu F, Merritt J, Bilige M, Sun T, Du R, Zhang H (2008) Immunological evaluation of Lactobacillus casei Zhang: a newly isolated strain from koumiss in Inner Mongolia, China. BMC Immunol 9:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Yadav M, Poornima P, Roshan NM, Prachi N, Veena M, Neena IE (2014) Evaluation of probiotic milk on salivary mutans streptococci count: an in vivo microbiological study. J Clin Pediatr Dent 39(1):23–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Yan L, Wen-Jing Z, Peng-Fei GAO, He-Ping Z, Yong-Fu C (2009) Optimization of cultural conditions of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei Zhang for high cell density cultivation. Microbiology 36(2):181–186Google Scholar
  223. Yang J, Deng Y, Chu H, Cong Y, Zhao J, Pohl D, Misselwitz B, Fried M, Dai N, Fox M (2013) Prevalence and presentation of lactose intolerance and effects on dairy product intake in healthy subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 11(3):262–268. e1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Yasui H, Kiyoshima J, Hori T (2004) Reduction of influenza virus titer and protection against influenza virus infection in infant mice fed Lactobacillus casei Shirota. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11(4):675–679PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  225. Yokokura T, Kato I, Mutai M (1981) Antitumor effect of Lactobacillus casei (LC 9018). Intestinal Flora Carcinogenesis 72:72–88Google Scholar
  226. YueYing YUN, LiPing W, HePing Z, YongFu C, MehebiLiGe (2006) Effect of administration of Lactobacillus casei Zhang on serum lipids and fecal steroids in hypercholesterolemic Rats. Microbiology 33(3):60–64Google Scholar
  227. Zeinhom M, Tellez AM, Delcenserie V, El-Kholy A, El-Shinawy S, Griffiths MW (2012) Yogurt containing bioactive molecules produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 exerts a protective effect against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in mice. J Food Prot 75(10):1796–1805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Zhai Q, Wang G, Zhao J, Liu X, Tian F, Zhang H, Chen W (2013) Protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against acute cadmium toxicity in mice. Appl Environ Microbiol 79(5):1508–1515PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Zhai Q, Wang G, Zhao J, Liu X, Narbad A, Chen YQ, Zhang H, Tian F, Chen W (2014) Protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610 against chronic cadmium toxicity in mice indicate routes of protection besides intestinal sequestration. Appl Environ Microbiol 80(13):4063–4071PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Zhai Q, Xiao Y, Tian F, Wang G, Zhao J, Liu X, Chen YQ, Zhang H, Chen W (2015a) Protective effects of lactic acid bacteria-fermented soymilk against chronic cadmium toxicity in mice. RSC Adv 5(6):4648–4658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Zhai Q, Yin R, Yu L, Wang G, Tian F, Yu R, Zhao J, Liu X, Chen YQ, Zhang H, Chen W (2015b) Screening of lactic acid bacteria with potential protective effects against cadmium toxicity. Food Control 54:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Zhai Q, Tian F, Wang G, Zhao J, Liu X, Cross K, Zhang H, Narbad A, Chen W (2016) The cadmium binding characteristics of a lactic acid bacterium in aqueous solutions and its application for removal of cadmium from fruit and vegetable juices. RSC Adv 6(8):5990–5998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Zhai Q, Xiao Y, Zhao J, Tian F, Zhang H, Narbad A, Chen W (2017) Identification of key proteins and pathways in cadmium tolerance of Lactobacillus plantarum strains by proteomic analysis. Sci Rep 7(1):1182PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Zhang H, Hua W, Guo B (2002) Screening of Lactobacillus with ability to reduce cholesterol from pickled vegetable. Biotechnology 12(6):16–18Google Scholar
  235. Zhang L, Xu Y-Q, Liu H-Y, Lai T, Ma J-L, Wang J-F, Zhu Y-H (2010) Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG using an Escherichia coli K88 model of piglet diarrhoea: Effects on diarrhoea incidence, faecal microflora and immune responses. Vet Microbiol 141(1-2):142–148PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  236. Zhang Y, Du R, He Q, Li H, Zhang H (2012) Effect of Lactobacillus casei Zhang administration on liver lipids metabolism of high-fat diet induced hypercholesterolemia Rats. Sci Agric Sin 45(5):943–950Google Scholar
  237. Zhang Z, Xiang Y, Li N, Wang B, Ai H, Wang X, Huang L, Zheng Y (2013) Protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG against human rotavirus-induced diarrhoea in a neonatal mouse model. Pathogens Dis 67(3):184–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Zhang J, Wang L, Guo Z, Sun Z, Gesudu Q, Kwok L, Menghebilige Z, H. (2014) 454 pyrosequencing reveals changes in the faecal microbiota of adults consuming Lactobacillus casei Zhang. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 88(3):612–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Zhang J, Liu Q, Chen W, Du G, Chen J (2016) Short communication: protection of lyophilized milk starter Lactobacillus casei Zhang by glutathione. J Dairy Sci 99(3):1846–1852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Zhong Z, Zhang W, Du R, Meng H, Zhang H (2012) Lactobacillus casei Zhang stimulates lipid metabolism in hypercholesterolemic rats by affecting gene expression in the liver. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 114(3):244–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Zhou J, Shu Q, Rutherfurd K, Prasad J, Birtles M, Gopal P, Gill H (2000a) Safety assessment of potential probiotic lactic acid bacterial strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 in BALB/c mice. Int J Food Microbiol 56(1):87–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Zhou J, Shu Q, Rutherfurd K, Prasad J, Gopal P, Gill H (2000b) Acute oral toxicity and bacterial translocation studies on potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria. Food Chem Toxicol 38(2):153–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Zhou J, Pillidge C, Gopal P, Gill H (2005) Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of new probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. Int J Food Microbiol 98(2):211–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Science Press 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  2. 2.Southwest UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations