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Fibrinolytic Enzymes for Thrombolytic Therapy

  • Swaroop S. Kumar
  • Abdulhameed Sabu
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1148)

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are a group of disorders consisting importantly of coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, cerebrovascular disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Severe cardiovascular disease conditions lead to acute myocardial infarction and stroke. One of the reasons for this is formation of blood clots inside the vessel. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs are used for managing cardiovascular diseases for a long time. However, they were unable to dissolve an existing thrombus. Fibrinolytic enzymes have become more substantial for treating cardiovascular diseases since they could lyse the fibrin clot within the blood vessel. Inability of plasma fibrinolytic system demands better thrombolytic drugs. Major thrombolytic enzymes belonging to plasminogen activators and plasmin like enzymes. Currently used fibrinolytic enzymes and their limitations are revisited in the present chapter. Reported enzymes from various sources with potential to be used as cardiovascular therapeutic is also discussed here.

Keywords

Fibrinolytic enzymes Plasminogen activators Microbial thrombolytic enzymes Nattokinase Serrapeptase 

Abbrevations

°C

Degree celsius

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

AIS

Acute ischemic stroke

Ala

Alanine

AMI

Acute myocardial infarction

APAN

p-amidinophenyl p-anisate hydrochloride

APSAC

Anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex

Arg

Arginine

Asn

Asparagine

Asp

Aspartic acid

ASSENT

Assessment of Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic agent

AT

Antithrombin III

BK

Bacillokinase

bpDJ-2

Bacillopeptidase DJ-2

CCU

Coronary care units

CDP

Codium diaricatum protease

CHO

Chinese Hasmster Ovary

CIP

Codium intricatum protease

CLP

Codium latum protease

COMPASS

Comparative Trial of Saruplase Versus Streptokinase

COX

Cyclooxygenase

Cys

Cysteine

DIAS

Desmoteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke

DNA

Deoxyribo nucleic acid

DSPAS

Desmodus salivary plasminogen activators

ECLT

Euglobulin clot lysis time

EDTA

Eethylene diamine tetraacetic acid

EFE

Eisenia fetida enzymes

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

ESPRIT

European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FFP

Fomitella fraxinea proteases

GISSI

Gruppo Italiano per la Sperimentazione della Streptochinasi nell’Infarto Miocardico

Gln

Glutamine

Glu

Glutamic acid

Gly

Glycine

GP IIb-IIIa

Glycoproteins (IIb-IIIa)

GUSTO

Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries

His

Histidine

HIT

Heparin induced thrombocytopenia

Ile

Isoleucine

InTIME-II

Intravenous NPA for the treatment of infarcting myocardium early

ISIS

International Study of Infarct Survival Collaborative Group

kDa

Kilo daltons

Leu

Leucine

LK

Lumbrokinase

LMWHs

Low molecular weight heparins

Lys

Lysine

Met

Methionine

MI

Myocardial infarction

NK

Nattokinase

NO

Nitric oxide

n-PA

Novel plasminogen activator

P2Y

Puronogenic ADP receptors

PAGE

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

PAIs

Plasminogen activator inhibitors

PAs

Plasminogen activators

PATT

Partial thromboplastin time

PERSIST

PERsistence Study of Ibandronate verSus alendronaTe

pH

Hydrogen ion

PH2

Prostaglnadin H2

Phe

Phenylalanine

Pro

Proline

PROCAT

Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism

Pro-UK

Pro-urokinase

r-PA

Recombinant plasminogen activator

r-proUK

Recombinant prourokinase

r-SAK

Recombinant staphylokinase

rSK

Recombinant streptokinase

rt-PA

Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

SAK

Staphylokinase

Scu-PA

Single chain urokinase plasminogen activator

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulphate

Ser

Serine

SERPINS

Serine protease inhibitors

SESAM

Study in Europe with Saruplase and Alteplase in Myocardial Infarction

SK

Streptokinase

SP

Serrapeptase

TAFI

Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor

Thr

Threonine

TIMI

Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction

TNK

Tenecteplase

t-PA

Tissue-type plasminogen activator

Trp

Tryptophan

TxA2

Thromboxane A2

Tyr

Tyrosine

u-PA

Urokinase plasminogen activator

USA

United States of America

USFDA

United States Food and Drug Administration

Val

Valine

vWF

vonWillebrand factor

WHO

World Health Organization

wt-SAK

Wild type staphylokinase

α1-PI

α1-Antitrypsin

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swaroop S. Kumar
    • 1
  • Abdulhameed Sabu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology & Microbiology, School of Life SciencesKannur UniversityPalayadIndia

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