Basic Information of Endoscopy
The electronic endoscope has become an advanced instrument for diagnosis and treatment of stomach and colon diseases (Fig. 56.1), and many types have been developed. For example, the endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to assess the visceral walls of the digestive tract or surrounding organs under the guidance of an endoscopic ultrasound probe. Narrow band image and magnifying endoscopes can be used to discover fine mucosal lesions and identify benign or malignant diseases. The confocal endoscope guides the confocal microscope into the gastrointestinal lumen to achieve optical biopsy. Capsule endoscopy can capture regular video images by using swallowed wireless capsules, and can be used as a tool to diagnose intestinal lesions. At present, endoscopies are applied not only to diagnosis of digestive diseases, but also for the treatment of the diseases in the gastrointestinal tract, bile duct and pancreatic duct.