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Physical Examination of Anus, Rectum and Genitals

  • Yi Liu
  • Rui Zeng
Chapter

Abstract

The terminal portion of the digestive tract is composed of the rectum, anal canal and anus. The rectum is a continuation of the sigmoid colon and ends in the anal canal, and its total length is about 12–15 cm. The anal canal is about 3–3.5 cm long. The orifice at the bottom of the anal canal is called anus which is verged by mucosa with increased pigmentation at the perianal skin. The anal canal has internal and external sphincter which form the anal ring. The anal ring is marked by the skin folds. The dentate line is located at 2 cm above the anal ring, which is composed of anal columns. The voids between anal columns are called the anal crypts. The epithelium of anus is squamous epithelium that changes to mucosal epithelium at the level of the dentate line. The dentate line is also the demarcation line of the rectum and anal canal. There are nearly 85% of ano-rectal diseases occurred in this area. The anterior wall of the rectum in the male is adjacent to the prostate, in the female, it is adjacent to the vagina and uterus.

Notes

Key Terms

1

Anal atresia and stenosis

肛门闭锁与狭窄

2

Anal fissure

肛裂

3

Hemorrhoid

痔疮

4

Anorectal fistula

肛管直肠瘘

5

Rectal prolapsed

直肠脱垂

6

Ano-rectal examination

直肠指诊

7

Prepuce redundant

包皮过长

8

Penile carcinoma

阴茎癌

9

Chancre

下疳

10

Hypospadias

尿道下裂

11

Edema of scrotum

阴囊水肿

12

Scrotum hernia

阴囊疝

13

Hydrocele

阴囊积水

14

Transillumination test

透视检查法

15

Bimanual pelvic exam

双合诊

Study Questions

  1. 1.

    What are the commonly used positions of the anorectal examination?

     
  2. 2.

    A digital rectal examination including what content?

     
  3. 3.

    What are the abnormal changes in the digital rectal examination?

     
  4. 4.

    What are the common manifestations of abnormal penis?

     
  5. 5.

    What are the common methods of the female internal genital inspection?

     

Suggested Websites

  1. 1.

    http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XOTUwNzc0Njg=.html

     
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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Liu
    • 1
  • Rui Zeng
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of General SurgeryAnhui Medical UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.Department of CardiologySichuan UniversityChengduChina

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