• Zhijun Duan
  • Rui Zeng


Constipation is defined as difficult defecation, straining of stool passage, reduced frequency of bowel movements and lumpy or hard stools. About 2–28% of the population suffer from constipation, which is more common in females than males. The incidence of constipation increases with age, and the prevalence in the elderly population ranges from 15 to 20%.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhijun Duan
    • 1
  • Rui Zeng
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyDalian Medical UniversityDalianChina
  2. 2.Department of CardiologySichuan UniversityChengduChina

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