Phytoremediation and Sustainable Developmental Policies and Practices

  • Atul Kumar Upadhyay
  • Ranjan Singh
  • D. P. Singh


Phytoremediation is a green strategy of environmental decontamination and offers a cost-effective approach for the remediation of variety of pollutants. This is an emerging technology toward sustaining the future of the world and mankind. The phytoremediation technology has been successfully applied in developed and developing nations to achieve the sustainable development goal. The present chapter encompasses the basic strategies, rules, regulation policies, and protective measures for the successful implementation of plant-based waste treatment technology in a cost-effective and sustainable manner.


Phytoremediation Sustainable development goal Environmental pollution Environmental policies 



Author Atul Kumar Upadhyay is thankful to Vice Chancellor B.B. Ambedkar Central University, Lucknow, and DST-Science and Engineering Research Board for their financial assistance (NPDF/2016/002432) and support.


  1. Adams A, Raman A, Hodgkins D (2013) How do the plants used in phytoremediation in constructed wetlands, a sustainable remediation strategy, perform in heavy-metal-contaminated mine sites? Water Environ J 27(3):373–386Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad AL, Yasin NM, Derek CJC, Lim JK (2011) Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 15:584–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali H, Khan E, Sajad MA (2013) Phytoremediation of heavy metals—concepts and applications. Chemosphere 91(7):869–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alkorta I, Garbisu C (2001) Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in soils. Bioresour Technol 73:273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. American Geophysical Union (2003) Eos 84:574Google Scholar
  6. American Meteorological Society, Bull (2003) Am Meteorol Soc 84:508Google Scholar
  7. Anderson CWN (2013) Phytoextraction to promote sustainable development. J Degrad Mini Lands Manag 1:51–56Google Scholar
  8. Anderson C, Moreno F, Meech J (2005) A field demonstration of gold phytoextraction technology. Miner Eng 18:385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayres RU, Ayres EH (2009) Crossing the energy divide: moving from fossil fuel dependence to a clean-energy future. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  10. Bartelmus P (2002) Environment, growth and development: the concepts and strategies of sustainability. Taylor and Francis Routledge, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. Brennan L, Owende P (2010) Biofuels from microalgae a review of technologies for production, processing and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sust Energy Rev 14:557–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brix H, Sorrell BK, Lorenzen B (2001) Are Phragmites-dominated wetlands a net source or net sink of greenhouse gases. Aquat Bot 69:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown S, Sathaye J, Cannell M, Kauppi PE (1996) Mitigation of carbon emissions to the atmosphere by forest management. Commonw For Rev 75:80–91Google Scholar
  14. Bulgarelli D, Rott M, Schlaeppi K, van Themaat EVL, Ahmadinejad N, Assenza F, Rauf P, Huettel B, Reinhardt R, Schmelzer E, Peplies J (2012) Revealing structure and assembly cues for Arabidopsis root-inhabiting bacterial microbiota. Nature 488(7409):91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Canakci M (2007) The potential of restaurant waste lipids as biodiesel feedstock. Bioresour Technol 98:183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Canoira L, Alcantara R, Garcia-Martinez J, Carrasco J (2006) Biodiesel from Jojoba oil-wax: transesterification with methanol and properties as a fuel. Biomass Bioenergy 30:76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carley M, Christie I (2017) Managing sustainable development. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen T, Wei C, Huang Z, Huang Q, Lu Q, Fan Z (2002) Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and its arsenic accumulation. Chin Sci Bull 47:902–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cunningham SD, Shann JR, Crowley DE, Anderson TA (1997) Phytoremediation of contaminated water and soil. In: Kruger EL, Anderson TA, Coats JR (eds) Phytoremediation of soil and Water contaminants. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 2–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deng Z, Cao L (2017) Fungal endophytes and their interactions with plants in phytoremediation: a review. Chemosphere 168:1100–1106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dickinson NM, Baker AJ, Doronila A, Laidlaw S, Reeves RD (2009) Phytoremediation of inorganics: realism and synergies. Int J Phytoremediation 11(2):97–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Diekmann M (2003) Species indicator values as an important tool in applied plant ecology–a review. Basic Appl Ecol 4:493–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dincer I (2000) Renewable energy and sustainable development: a crucial review. Renew Sust Energy Rev 4:157–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dobson AP, Bradshaw AD, Baker AA (1997) Hopes for the future: restoration ecology and conservation biology. Science 277:515–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Engelhardt KA, Ritchie ME (2001) Effects of macrophyte species richness on wetland ecosystem functioning and services. Nature 411(6838):687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ghadge SV, Raheman H (2006) Process optimization for biodiesel production from mahua (Madhucaindica) oil using response surface methodology. Bioresour Technol 97:379–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Giusti L (2009) A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health. Waste Manag 29:2227–2239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Global Water Partnership (2008) IWRM toolbox. Integrated water resources management. Accessed 15 June 11
  29. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM, Toulmin C (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327:812–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gracey M, King M (2009) Indigenous health. Part 1: Determinants and disease patterns. Lancet 374:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Griggs D, Stafford-Smith M, Gaffney O, Rockström J, Öhman MC, Shyamsundar P, Steffen W, Glaser G, Kanie N, Noble I (2013) Policy: sustainable development goals for people and planet. Nature 495:305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Griggs D, Smith MS, Rockström J, Öhman MC, Gaffney O, Glaser G, Kanie N, Noble I, Steffen W, Shyamsundar P (2014) An integrated framework for sustainable development goals. Ecol Soc 19Google Scholar
  33. Guerrero LA, Maas G, Hogland W (2013) Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Waste Manag 33:220–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Haarstad K, Bavor HJ, Mæhlum T (2012) Organic and metallic pollutants in water treatment and natural wetlands: a review. Water Sci Technol 65:76–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. IPCC (2014) Annex II: glossary. In: Mach KJ, Planton S, von Stechow C (eds) Climate change (2014) synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. IPCC, Geneva, pp 117–130Google Scholar
  36. Kiss A (2004) Is community-based ecotourism a good use of biodiversity conservation funds. Trends Ecol Evol 19:232–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leakey AD, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Rogers A, Long SP, Ort DR (2009) Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE. J Exp Bot 60:2859–2876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lélé SM (1991) Sustainable development: a critical review. World Dev 19(6):607–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lobell DB, Field CB (2007) Global scale climate–crop yield relationships and the impacts of recent warming. Environ Res Letters 2(1):014002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ma F, Hanna MA (1999) Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresour Technol 70:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mata TM, Martins AA, Caetano NS (2010) Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: a review. Renew Sust Energy Rev 14:217–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Matthewman S (2016) Disasters, risks and revelation: making sense of our times. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  43. Maxwell SL, Fuller RA, Brooks TM, Watson JE (2016) Biodiversity: the ravages of guns, nets and bulldozers. Nature 536(7615):143–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McCright AM, Dunlap RE (2000) Challenging global warming as a social problem: an analysis of the conservative movement’s counter-claims. Soc Probl 47(4):499–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McNeely JA (1994) Protected areas for the 21st century: working to provide benefits to society. Biodivers Conserv:390–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Meers E, Slycken SV, Adriaensen K, Ruttens A, Vangronsveld J, Laing GD, Witters N, Thewys T, Tack FMG (2010) The use of bioenergy crops (Zea mays) for ‘phytoattenuation’ of heavy metals on moderately contaminated soils: a field experiment. Chemosphere 78:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Miller JR (2005) Biodiversity conservation and the extinction of experience. Trends Ecol Evol 20:430–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Omann I, Stocker A, Jäger J (2009) Climate change as a threat to biodiversity: an application of the DPSIR approach. Ecol Econ 69:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. OECD-FAO (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2011) Agricultural outlook 2011–2020. OECD Publishing, OECD & FAO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  50. OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) (2013) Scaling-up Finance Mechanisms for Biodiversity. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  51. Pandey DN (2002) Carbon sequestration in agroforestry systems. Clim Policy 2:367–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pandey VC, Bajpai O, Singh N (2016) Energy crops in sustainable phytoremediation. Renew Sust Energ Rev 54:58–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Paz-Alberto AM, Sigua GC (2013) Phytoremediation: a green technology to remove environmental pollutants. Am J Clim Change 2:71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pretty J, Smith D (2004) Social capital in biodiversity conservation and management. Conserv Biol 18:631–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rai UN, Tripathi RD, Singh NK, Upadhyay AK, Dwivedi S, Shukla MK, Mallick S, Singh SN, Nautiyal CS (2013) Constructed wetland as an ecotechnological tool for pollution treatment for conservation of Ganga river. Bioresour Technol 148:535–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rai UN, Upadhyay AK, Singh NK (2015) Constructed wetland: an ecotechnology for wastewater treatment and conservation of Ganga water quality. In: Thangavel P, Sridevi G (eds) Environmental sustainability. Springer, New Delhi, pp 251–264Google Scholar
  57. Rezania S, Ponraj M, Talaiekhozani A, Mohamad SE, Din MFM, Taib SM, Sabbagh F, Sairan FM (2015) Perspectives of phytoremediation using water hyacinth for removal of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater. J Environ Manag 163:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Robinson B, Green S, Mills T, Clothier B, van der Velde M, Laplane R, Fung L, Deurer M, Hurst S, Thayalakumaran T, van den Dijssel C (2003) Phytoremediation: using plants as biopumps to improve degraded environments. Soil Res 41:599–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rodriguez L, Rincón J, Asencio I, Rodríguez-Castellanos L (2007) Capability of selected crop plants for shoot mercury accumulation from polluted soils: phytoremediation perspectives. Int J Phytoremediation 9:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Salt DE, Blaylock M, Kumar NP, Dushenkov V, Ensley BD, Chet I, Raskin I (1995) Phytoremediation: a novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants. Nat Biotech 13:468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Seto KC, Güneralp B, Hutyra LR (2012) Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools. PNAS 109:16083–16088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sharma V, Ramawat KG, Choudhary BL (2012) Biodiesel production for sustainable agriculture. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Sustainable agriculture reviews. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 133–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sharma RK, Gulati S, Puri A (2014) Green chemistry solutions to water pollution. In: Ahuja S (ed) Water reclamation and sustainability. Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, pp 57–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sims RE, Mabee W, Saddler JN, Taylor M (2010) An overview of second generation biofuel technologies. Bioresour Technol 101:1570–1580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Singh R, Upadhyay AK, Chandra P, Singh DP (2018) Sodium chloride incites reactive oxygen species in green algae Chlorococcum humicola and Chlorella vulgaris: implication on lipid synthesis, mineral nutrients and antioxidant system. Bioresour Technol 270:489–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sunderlin WD, Angelsen A, Belcher B, Burgers P, Nasi R, Santoso L, Wunder S (2005) Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: an overview. World Dev 33:1383–1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Szczepaniak K, Biziuk M (2003) Aspects of the biomonitoring studies using mosses and lichens as indicators of metal pollution. Environ Res 93:221–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tabak HH, Lens P, van Hullebusch ED, Dejonghe W (2005) Developments in bioremediation of soils and sediments polluted with metals and radionuclides. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 4:115–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tainter J (1990) The collapse of complex societies. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  70. Tangahu BV, Abdullah S, Rozaimah S, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, Mukhlisin M (2011) A review on heavy metals (As, Pb and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. Int J Chem EngGoogle Scholar
  71. Thijs S, Sillen W, Rineau F, Weyens N, Vangronsveld J (2016) Towards an enhanced understanding of plant–microbiome interactions to improve phytoremediation: engineering the metaorganism. Front Microbiol 7:341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Thomason MK, Storz G (2010) Bacterial antisense RNAs: how many are there, and what are they doing? Ann Rev Genetics 44:167–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tilman D, Balzer C, Hill J, Befort B (2011) Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. PNAS 108:20260–20264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Upadhyay AK, Mandotra SK, Kumar N, Singh NK, Singh L, Rai UN (2016) Augmentation of arsenic enhances lipid yield and defense responses in alga Nannochloropsis sp. Bioresour Technol 221:430–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Upadhyay AK, Singh NK, Bankoti NS, Rai UN (2017) Designing and construction of simulated constructed wetland for treatment of sewage containing metals. Environ Technol 38:2691–2699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Upadhyay AK, Singh R, Singh DP (2019) Phycotechnological approaches toward wastewater management. In: Bharagava RN, Chowdhary P (eds) Emerging and eco-friendly approaches for waste management. Springer, Singapore, pp 423–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Usta N (2005) Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine. Biomass Bioenergy 28:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Vermaat JE, Hanif MK (1998) Performance of common duckweed species (Lemnaceae) and the water fern Azolla filiculoides on different types of waste water. Water Res 32:2569–2576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Water UN (2015) Wastewater management-A UN-water analytical brief. World Meteorological Organization in Geneva, Switzerland, pp 1–52Google Scholar
  80. Whiting GJ, Chanton JP (2001) Greenhouse carbon balance of wetlands: methane emission versus carbon sequestration. Tellus B 53:521–528Google Scholar
  81. Wilbanks TJ, Kates RW (1999) Global change in local places: how scale matters. Clim Chang 43(3):601–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wilson CV, Anderson CW, Rodriguez-Lopez M (2012) Gold phytomining. A review of the relevance of this technology to mineral extraction in the 21st century. J Environ Manag 111:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zazai KG, Wani OA, Ali A, Devi M (2018) Phytoremediation and carbon sequestration potential of agroforestry systems: a review. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 7:2447–2457CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atul Kumar Upadhyay
    • 1
  • Ranjan Singh
    • 1
  • D. P. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations