Integrated Approach for Bioremediation and Biofuel Production Using Algae
Large-scale industrialization and anthropogenic activities have led inordinate disposal of waste water into fresh water bodies, causing imbalance in aquatic ecosystem and degradation of water quality. Waste water contains significantly high amount of organic, inorganic substances as well as toxic heavy metals. To neutralize the negative impact of waste water, effective remediation processes are required. At present, numbers of conventional waste water treatment technologies have been employed, but they require high operational cost, large input of energy and huge land area, which leads to its failure at the ground level. Therefore, bioremediation of waste water using microalgae has emerged as an alternative approach that provides simple and cost-effective technology of waste treatment with simultaneous production of value-added products. Microalgae are very efficient in assimilating nutrients and other pollutants from waste water for huge biomass production. Harvested algal biomass is a rich source of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and secondary metabolites that can be used as animal feed, biofertilizer and feedstock for biofuel production. Therefore, this chapter highlights the different mechanisms involved in nutrient removal by microalgae and subsequent utilization of algal biomass for biofuel production.
KeywordsMicroalgae Waste water treatment Biofuel Nutrient removal
The authors are thankful to the University Grants Commission (UGC), Delhi, India, for financial support. Authors are also thankful to the vice-chancellor, Panjab University Chandigarh, for providing necessary laboratory facilities and support.
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