Reproductive Biology

  • T. Pullaiah


In this chapter pollination ecology of red sanders has been described. In flowering phenology, pollination mechanism has been given in detail. The endemic nature to certain extent is related to floral biology of this tree, and this information contributes to conservation and tree improvement programmes. Pollination is only by honey bee species Apis dorsata, A. cerana indica and A. florae. In red sanders fruit formation is by xenogamy, autogamy and geitonogamy, which indicates that breeding system in this species is facultative xenogamous. Compared to very high flower production, the fruit set is very low.


Flowering phenology Floral biology Pollination ecology Pollination mechnaism Xenogamy 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Pullaiah
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanySri Krishnadevaraya UniversityAnantapurIndia

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