Soil Microbial Hotspots and Hot Moments: Management vis-a-vis Soil Biodiversity
All soils are heterogeneous in nature with differentiation in physical, chemical, and biological properties. Heterogeneity in substrate availability creates microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil. Microbial hotspots are microsites in soil with higher microbial activity and respiration rate compared to bulk soil. Microbial hotspot localization may occur around plant root surface (i.e., rhizosphere), on degrading plant roots (detritusphere), plant root or earthworm burrows (biopores), or surface of soil aggregates. In soil, most prevalent hotspots are found in the rhizosphere and on aggregate surfaces but frequently are of mixed origin. Priming effects are limited in microbial hotspots but are of significance of hot moments (short-term microbial hotspots). Residue decomposition induces significant changes in the microbial community. For concept of soil microbial hotspot and hot moment, we extensively reviewed and examined available literature related to management of soil biodiversity. Long-term cropping sequence had also significantly influenced microbial activity in agricultural soils. Increasing biodiversity through improved crop management practices restores positive aboveground-belowground interactions. In these insights, microbial hotspot management should be considered important in soil sustainability and food security.
KeywordsMicrobial hotspot Hot moment Microbial activity Soil biodiversity
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