Rhizospheric Microbiomes: Biodiversity, Mechanisms of Plant Growth Promotion, and Biotechnological Applications for Sustainable Agriculture

  • Divjot Kour
  • Kusam Lata Rana
  • Neelam Yadav
  • Ajar Nath Yadav
  • Ashok Kumar
  • Vijay Singh Meena
  • Bhanumati Singh
  • Vinay Singh Chauhan
  • Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal
  • Anil Kumar Saxena


Soil consists of diverse microscopic life forms such as actinomycetes, algae, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and protozoans. But, the rhizospheric region is the most widely colonized regions of the soil due to the secretion of various nutrients by plant roots which attract microbes toward it with bacteria being the dominant one in this region. The bacteria in the rhizospheric region are highly beneficial for the plants as they directly or indirectly stimulate growth of the plants by nitrogen fixation; production of various phytohormones including auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins; solubilization of phosphorus; production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACC), siderophores, HCN, ammonia, and various lytic enzymes; and induction of systemic resistance. These plant growth-promoting bacteria of rhizospheric region are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The phyla involving major groups of PGPR include Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria belonging to different genera Acetobacter, Achromobacter, Arthrobacter, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Exiguobacterium, Flavobacterium, Gluconacetobacter, Herbaspirillum, Methylobacterium, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Serratia, and Staphylococcus. Furthermore, the use of PGPR offers an eco-friendly and an attractive way of replacing the chemical fertilizers, pesticides. In fact, there are many reports on use of rhizobacteria for improving the productivity and also protection of plants against pathogens and pests. In this way, benefits of using PGPR for sustainable agriculture is gaining a greater attention as well as acceptance worldwide, and the progress that has been made to date in using the rhizospheric bacteria with various applications, for agricultural improvement with reference to plant growth-promoting mechanisms, has been summarized and discussed in the present chapter.


Abiotic stress Biodiversity PGPR Plant growth promotion Sustainable agriculture 



The authors are grateful to Prof. Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal, Vice Chancellor, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, India, for providing infrastructural facilities and constant encouragement.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Divjot Kour
    • 1
  • Kusam Lata Rana
    • 1
  • Neelam Yadav
    • 2
  • Ajar Nath Yadav
    • 1
  • Ashok Kumar
    • 3
  • Vijay Singh Meena
    • 4
  • Bhanumati Singh
    • 5
  • Vinay Singh Chauhan
    • 5
  • Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal
    • 1
  • Anil Kumar Saxena
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Akal College of AgricultureEternal UniversitySirmourIndia
  2. 2.Gopi Nath P.G. CollegeVeer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal UniversityGhazipurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding (Plant Biotechnology), Rajiv Gandhi South CampusBanaras Hindu UniversityMirzapurIndia
  4. 4.Crop Production DivisionICAR-Vivekananda Institute of Hill AgricultureAlmoraIndia
  5. 5.Department of BiotechnologyBundelkhand UniversityJhansiIndia
  6. 6.ICAR-National Bureau of Agriculturally Important MicroorganismsMauIndia

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