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Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Environmental Fate, Challenges and Bioremediation

  • Seethalaksmi Elangovan
  • Sathish Babu Soundra Pandian
  • Geetha S. J.
  • Sanket J. JoshiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 10)

Abstract

Synthetic chlorinated organic compounds—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)—have been used in several industrial applications for over 50 years and are among the most persistent classes of xenobiotic pollutants. PCBs remain in the environment for a long period due to their low reactivity and stability in harsh environmental conditions. Samples of PCBs can be analysed using chromatographic methods (gas or liquid) coupled with mass spectrometry after various pre-treatment and extraction methods. Hydrophobicity and a chemically stable nature cause them to break down very slowly under natural conditions. Catabolism by microbial enzymes is an efficient route for environmental biodegradation of PCBs, but as chlorination substitution in the biphenyl ring increases, the microbial degradation rate decreases. Different types of microbes are reported to degrade PCBs under anaerobic and/or aerobic conditions by reducing and oxidizing dechlorination mechanisms, respectively. Four main enzymes are reported for the biodegradation pathway of PCBs: biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA), dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (bphB), 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) and 2-hydroxyl-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid hydrolase (bphD). Different types of bacteria are reported to successfully degrade PCBs, but only a few fungi are possible degraders in the absence of alternative carbon sources.

Keywords

Polychlorinated biphenyls Stir-bar sorptive extraction Solid-phase microextraction Extraction syringe Matrix solid-phase dispersion Ultrasonic extraction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to kindly acknowledge Dr. Samuel Premkumar, CAARU, for deducing the chemical structures, and facilities and support provided by Sultan Qaboos University while preparing this chapter.

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seethalaksmi Elangovan
    • 1
  • Sathish Babu Soundra Pandian
    • 2
  • Geetha S. J.
    • 3
  • Sanket J. Joshi
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Sri Sankara Arts and Science CollegeUniversity of MadrasChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Central Analytical and Applied Research Unit, College of ScienceSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  3. 3.Department of Biology, College of ScienceSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman

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