An Overview of Nitro Group-Containing Compounds and Herbicides Degradation in Microorganisms

  • Sikandar I. Mulla
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
  • Dalel Belhaj
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
  • Zabin K. Bagewadi
  • Gaurav Saxena
  • Ashok Kumar
  • Harshavardhan Mohan
  • Chang-Ping Yu
  • Harichandra Z. Ninnekar
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 10)


Basically, nitro functional group-containing chemicals have been used to synthesize various useful products like dyes, pesticides and solvents, and also military products and so on. Hence, many nitroaromatics (including nitrophenols) have been continuously released into the environment and appear in the soil and water. Some are known to be toxic due to their great impact on living systems (especially on health). Most such chemicals (nitroaromatic compounds) are listed as priority chemicals by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The vast use of such chemicals and their toxic effects had led to the study of the degradation of nitro group-containing chemicals by microbes (an easily available and cost-effective treatment). In view of this, we discuss the degradation of a few nitro group-containing compounds and herbicide(s) by microorganisms from published literature, and we consider the future perspective.


3,5-dinitro-ortho-cresol 4-nitrophenol Picric acid Microorganisms Degradation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sikandar I. Mulla
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ram Naresh Bharagava
    • 3
  • Dalel Belhaj
    • 4
  • Ganesh Dattatraya Saratale
    • 5
  • Zabin K. Bagewadi
    • 6
  • Gaurav Saxena
    • 3
  • Ashok Kumar
    • 7
  • Harshavardhan Mohan
    • 8
  • Chang-Ping Yu
    • 1
  • Harichandra Z. Ninnekar
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesXiamenChina
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryKarnatak UniversityDharwadIndia
  3. 3.Laboratory of Bioremediation and Metagenomics Research (LBMR), Department of Microbiology (DM)Baba Saheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia
  4. 4.FSS, Department of Life Sciences, Laboratory of Biodiversity and Aquatic Ecosystems Ecology and PlanktonologyUniversity of Sfax-TunisiaSfaxTunisia
  5. 5.Department of Food Science and BiotechnologyDongguk University-SeoulSeoulRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Department of BiotechnologyKLE Technological UniversityHubballiIndia
  7. 7.Department of Biotechnology and BioinformaticsJaypee University of Information TechnologyWaknaghatIndia
  8. 8.Department of Environmental SciencePSG College of Arts and ScienceCoimbatoreIndia

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