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Evolution: The Hallmarks of Gliding Motility in Apicomplexan

  • Samridhi Pathak
  • Ricka Gauba
  • Sarath Chandra Dantu
  • Avinash KaleEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Evolution of actin and its regulators is discussed in this chapter. In our study, we have explicitly elucidated the evolutionary path of actin and its regulators identified in apicomplexans. In our phylogenetic analysis, we observed that actin and its regulators, except formin, to be evolved to control the central functions of gliding motility. Our observation of the phylogeny reveals that apicomplexan being a small system with one regulated machinery may have adapted the regulatory functions from one of the lower eukaryotes or cyanobacteria. We have also found actin and the machinery in two cyanobacteria indicating that entire machinery of gliding motility in apicomplexans, except for formin, might have emerged from this ancient prokaryote. Also, we trace back that in our database, the entire acting gliding motility machinery is present in Acanthamoeba in its intact form.

Supplementary material

480865_1_En_9_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (27 kb)
SF_EVL-1 Phylogeny analysis of Actin cds sequences using maximum parsimony with 500 bootstrap iteration. The evolutionary history was inferred by using the maximum likelihood method based on the JTT matrix-based model [1]. The tree with the highest log likelihood (-5452.1220) is shown. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches. Initial tree(s) for the heuristic search were obtained automatically by applying Neighbor-Join and BioNJ algorithms to a matrix of pairwise distances estimated using a JTT model and then selecting the topology with superior log likelihood value. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. The analysis involved 83 amino acid sequences. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 78 positions in the final dataset. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA7 (PDF 27 kb)
480865_1_En_9_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (23 kb)
SF_EVL-2 Phylogeny analysis of profilin sequences using maximum likelihood with 500 bootstrap iteration. The evolutionary history was inferred by using the maximum likelihood method based on the JTT matrix-based model [1]. The tree with the highest log likelihood (-5452.1220) is shown. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches. Initial tree(s) for the heuristic search were obtained automatically by applying Neighbor-Join and BioNJ algorithms to a matrix of pairwise distances estimated using a JTT model and then selecting the topology with superior log likelihood value. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. The analysis involved 83 amino acid sequences. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 78 positions in the final dataset. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA7 (PDF 23 kb)
480865_1_En_9_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (23 kb)
SF_EVL-3 Phylogeny analysis of ADF sequences using maximum likelihood with 500 bootstrap iteration. The evolutionary history was inferred by using the maximum likelihood method based on the JTT matrix-based model [1]. The tree with the highest log likelihood (-5452.1220) is shown. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches. Initial tree(s) for the heuristic search were obtained automatically by applying Neighbor-Join and BioNJ algorithms to a matrix of pairwise distances estimated using a JTT model and then selecting the topology with superior log likelihood value. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. The analysis involved 83 amino acid sequences. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 78 positions in the final dataset. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA7 (PDF 22 kb)
480865_1_En_9_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (13 kb)
SF_EVL-4 Phylogeny analysis of CAP sequences using maximum likelihood with 500 bootstrap iteration. The evolutionary history was inferred by using the maximum likelihood method based on the JTT matrix-based model [1]. The tree with the highest log likelihood (-5452.1220) is shown. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches. Initial tree(s) for the heuristic search were obtained automatically by applying Neighbor-Join and BioNJ algorithms to a matrix of pairwise distances estimated using a JTT model and then selecting the topology with superior log likelihood value. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. The analysis involved 83 amino acid sequences. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 78 positions in the final dataset. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA7 (PDF 13 kb)
480865_1_En_9_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (81 kb)
SF_EVL-5 Phylogeny analysis of CP-α sequences using maximum likelihood with 500 bootstrap iteration. The evolutionary history was inferred by using the maximum likelihood method based on the JTT matrix-based model [1]. The tree with the highest log likelihood (-5452.1220) is shown. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches. Initial tree(s) for the heuristic search were obtained automatically by applying Neighbor-Join and BioNJ algorithms to a matrix of pairwise distances estimated using a JTT model and then selecting the topology with superior log likelihood value. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. The analysis involved 83 amino acid sequences. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 78 positions in the final dataset. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA7 (PDF 80 kb)
480865_1_En_9_MOESM6_ESM.pdf (163 kb)
SF_EVL-6 Phylogeny analysis of CP-β sequences using maximum likelihood with 500 bootstrap iteration. The evolutionary history was inferred by using the maximum likelihood method based on the JTT matrix-based model [1]. The tree with the highest log likelihood (-5452.1220) is shown. The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches. Initial tree(s) for the heuristic search were obtained automatically by applying Neighbor-Join and BioNJ algorithms to a matrix of pairwise distances estimated using a JTT model and then selecting the topology with superior log likelihood value. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths measured in the number of substitutions per site. The analysis involved 83 amino acid sequences. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 78 positions in the final dataset. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA7 (PDF 163 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samridhi Pathak
    • 1
  • Ricka Gauba
    • 1
  • Sarath Chandra Dantu
    • 2
  • Avinash Kale
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Chemical Sciences, UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences (CEBS)MumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science, Synthetic Biology ThemeBrunel University LondonUxbridgeUK

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