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Chitin-Active Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenases

  • Gaston Courtade
  • Finn L. AachmannEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1142)

Abstract

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of 1,4-glycosidic bonds various plant cell wall polysaccharides and chitin. In contrast to glycoside hydrolases, LPMOs are active on the crystalline regions of polysaccharides and thus synergize with hydrolytic enzymes. This synergism leads to an overall increase in the biomass-degradation activity of enzyme mixtures. Chitin-active LPMOs were discovered in 2010 and are currently classified in families AA10, AA11, and AA15 of the Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes database, which include LPMOs from bacteria, fungi, insects, and viruses. LPMOs have become important enzymes both industrially and scientifically and, in this chapter, we provide a brief introduction to chitin-active LPMOs including a summary of the 20+ chitin-active LPMOs that have been characterized so far. Then, we describe their structural features, catalytic mechanism, and appended carbohydrate modules. Finally, we show how chitin-active LPMOs can be used to perform chemo-enzymatic modification of chitin substrates.

Keywords

Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) Copper-dependent enzymes Crystalline polysaccharides 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology and Food ScienceNOBIPOL, NTNU Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

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