Specifics 1: Head and Neck Cancer and Esophageal Cancer

  • Shuhei Ito
  • Kensuke Koike
  • Koshi MimoriEmail author


Head and neck cancer (HNC) and esophageal cancer (EC) are aggressive diseases associated with high morbidity and mortality. The poor prognosis is mainly attributed to the absence of specific symptoms during early-stage cancer and the lack of reliable biomarkers. The identification of biomarkers has the potential to aid early diagnosis and prediction of recurrence and therapeutic efficacy. Biomarkers can also enable the improvement of long-term prognosis through personalized treatment strategies. The discovery of noninvasive methods to detect and monitor tumors remains a major challenge in clinical oncology. In this chapter, we review the development and feasibility of biomarkers, especially via “liquid biopsy,” such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), and autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). We highlight new insights into the biomarkers of HNC and EC in clinical application and identify promising avenues of research in this emerging field of study, ultimately leading to improved HNC and EC patient care.


Esophageal cancer Head and neck cancer Liquid biopsy Circulating tumor cell Cell-free DNA 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryKyushu University Beppu HospitalBeppuJapan
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryNational Fukuoka-Higashi Medical Center, Chidori, KogaFukuokaJapan

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