Advertisement

Metal Toxicity and Nitrogen Metabolism in Plants: An Overview

  • Saddam Hussain
  • Abdul Khaliq
  • Mehmood Ali Noor
  • Mohsin Tanveer
  • Hafiz Athar Hussain
  • Sadam Hussain
  • Tariq Shah
  • Tariq Mehmood
Chapter

Abstract

Heavy metal pollution has emerged as a severe threat to the environment as well as global food security. Exposure of plants to the heavy metals could cause perturbations in various physiological, biochemical, and metabolic processes including nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation. Here, we discussed the effects of metal toxicity on N uptake, N forms, mechanism of metal toxicity, and nitrogen assimilation in plants. We provided a detailed description on the behavior of various enzymes including nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) under metal toxicity. We highlighted the response of various nitrogenous compounds and their special role under metal toxicity. In addition, we discussed the effects of excess metals on N fixation in plants and provided the guidelines for further studies.

Keywords

Amino acids Ammonium Heavy metals Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen metabolism 

Abbreviations

As

Arsenic

Cd

Cadmium

Cu

Copper

Fe

Iron

GB

Glycine betaine

GDH

Glutamate dehydrogenase

Gln

Glutamine

Glu

Glutamate

GOGAT

Glutamate synthase

GS

Glutamine synthetase

Hg

Mercury

MDA

Malondialdehyde

Mn

Manganese

Mo

Molybdenum

N

Nitrogen

NH4+

Ammonium

Ni

Nickel

NiR

Nitrite reductase

NO3

Nitrate

NR

Nitrate reductase

Pb

Lead

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SH

Sulfhydryl

V

Vanadium

Zn

Zinc

References

  1. Alcázar R, Marco F, Cuevas JC et al (2006) Involvement of polyamines in plant response to abiotic stress. Biotechnol Lett 28(23):1867–1876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali H, Khan E, Sajad MA (2013) Phytoremediation of heavy metals, concepts and applications. Chemosphere 91(7):869–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews M, Raven JA, Lea PJ (2013) Do plants need nitrate? The mechanisms by which nitrogen form affects plants. Ann Appl Biol 163(2):174–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anjum SA, Tanveer M, Hussain S et al (2016) Osmoregulation and antioxidant production in maize under combined cadmium and arsenic stress. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(12):11864–11875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anjum SA, Tanveer M, Hussain S et al (2017) Alteration in growth, leaf gas exchange, and photosynthetic pigments of maize plants under combined cadmium and arsenic stress. Water Air Soil Pollut 228(1):13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Antunes F, Aguilar M, Pineda M et al (2008) Nitrogen stress and the expression of asparagine synthetase in roots and nodules of soybean (Glycine max). Physiol Plant 133:736–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arora NK, Khare E, Singh S et al (2010) Effect of Al and heavy metals on enzymes of nitrogen metabolism of fast and slow growing rhizobia under explanta conditions. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 26:811–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashoka P, Meena RS, Kumar S, Yadav GS, Layek J (2017) Green nanotechnology is a key for eco-friendly agriculture. J Clean Prod 142:4440–4441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycinebetaine and proline in improving plant abiotic resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashraf U, Kanu AS, Mo Z et al (2015) Lead toxicity in rice: effects, mechanisms, and mitigation strategies-a mini review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(23):18318–18332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ashraf U, Hussain S, Anjum SA et al (2017) Alterations in growth, oxidative damage, and metal uptake of five aromatic rice cultivars under lead toxicity. Plant Physiol Biochem 115:461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Astolfi S, Zuchi S, Passera C (2004) Role of sulphur availability on cadmium induced changes of nitrogen and sulphur metabolism in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. J Plant Physiol 161:795–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Athar R, Ahmad M (2002a) Heavy metal toxicity: effect on plant growth and metal uptake by wheat, and on free living Azotobacter. Water Air Soil Pollut 138(1–4):165–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Athar R, Ahmad M (2002b) Heavy metal toxicity in legume-microsymbiont system. J Plant Nutr 25(2):369–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ayangbenro AS, Babalola OO (2017) A new strategy for heavy metal polluted environments: a review of microbial biosorbents. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14:1–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Aziz O, Hussain S, Rizwan M et al (2018) Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1855-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Balestrasse KB, Gardey L, Gallego SM et al (2001) Response of antioxidant defence system in soybean nodules and roots subjected to cadmium stress. Funct Plant Biol 28(6):497–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Balestrasse KB, Gallego SM, Tomaro ML (2004) Cadmium-induced senescence in nodules of soybean (Glycine max L.) plants. Plant Soil 262(1–2):373–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Balestrasse KB, Gallego SM, Tomaro ML (2006) Oxidation of the enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation plays an important role in the cadmium-induced toxicity in soybean plants. Plant Soil 284(1–2):187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barroso JB, Francisco JC, Alfonso C et al (2006) Localization of S-nitrosoglutathione and expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase in pea plants under cadmium stress. J Exp Bot 57(8):1785–1793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Belimov AA, Dodd IC, Safronova VI et al (2015) The cadmium-tolerant pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant SGECdt is more sensitive to mercury: assessing plant water relations. J Exp Bot 66(8):2359–2369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bharwana SA, Ali S, Farooq MA et al (2014) Glycine betaine-induced lead toxicity tolerance related to elevated photosynthesis, antioxidant enzymes suppressed lead uptake and oxidative stress in cotton. Turk J Bot 38(2):281–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bianucci E, Fabra A, Castro S (2011) Cadmium accumulation and tolerance in Bradyrhizobium spp. (Peanut Microsymbionts). Curr Microbiol 62:96–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bielawski W (1994) Effect of some compounds on glutamine synthetase isoform activity from Triticale seedling leaves. Acta Physiol Plant 16:303–308Google Scholar
  25. Bishnoi NR, Chugh LK, Sawhney SK (1993) Effect of chromium on photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen fixation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings. J Plant Physiol 142(1):25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boussama N, Ouariti O, Suzuki A (1999a) Cd-stress on nitrogen assimilation. J Plant Physiol 159:310–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Boussama N, Ouariti O, Ghorbal MH (1999b) Changes in growth and nitrogen assimilation in barley seedlings under cadmium stress. J Plant Nutr 22:731–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bravo S, Amorós JA, Pérez-de-los-Reyes C et al (2017) Influence of the soil pH in the uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn) and other elements (Ca, K, Al, Sr and Ba) in vine leaves, Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). J Geochem Explor 174:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Britto DT, Kronzucker HJ (2002) NH4+ toxicity in higher plants: a critical review. J Plant Physiol 159(6):567–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Broos K, Beyens H, Smolders E (2005) Survival of rhizobia in soil is sensitive to elevated zinc in the absence of the host plant. Soil Biol Biochem 37:573–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Burger M, Jackson LE (2003) Microbial immobilization of ammonium and nitrate in relation to ammonification and nitrification rates in organic and conventional cropping systems. Soil Biol Biochem 35(1):29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Burzynski M (1990) Activity of some enzymes involved in N03’ assimilation in cucumber seedlings treated with lead or cadmium. Acta Physiol Plant 12:105–110Google Scholar
  33. Burzynski M, Buczek J (1994) The influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni on NO-uptake by cucumber seedlings. II. In vivo and in vitro effects of Cd, Pb, Cu and Ni on the plasmalemma ATPase and oxidoreductase from cucumber seedling roots. Acta Physiol Plant 16:297–302Google Scholar
  34. Burzynski M, Buczek J (1997) The effect of Cu2+ on uptake and assimilation of ammonium by cucumber seedlings. Acta Physiol Plant 19:3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Burzynski M, Buczek J (1998) Uptake and assimilation of ammonium ions by cucumber seedlings from solutions with different pH and addition of heavy metals. Acta Soc Bot Polon 67:197–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carillo P, Mastrolonardo G, Nacca F et al (2005) Nitrate reductase in durum wheat seedlings as affected by nitrate nutrition and salinity. Funct Plant Biol 32(3):209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carpena RO, Vázquez S, Esteban E et al (2003) Cadmium-stress in white lupin: effects on nodule structure and functioning. Plant Physiol Biochem 41(10):911–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cesco S, Neumann G, Tomasi N et al (2010) Release of plant-borne flavonoids into the rhizosphere and their role in plant nutrition. Plant Soil 329(1–2):1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Chaffai R, Koyama H (2011) Heavy metal tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In: Advances in botanical research, vol 60. Academic, Dordrecht, pp 1–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chaffei C, Gouia H, Ghorbel MH (2003) Nitrogen metabolism in tomato plants under cadmium stress. J Plant Nutr 26:1617–1634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chaffei C, Pageau K, Suzuki A et al (2004) Cadmium toxicity induced changes in nitrogen management in Lycopersicon esculentum leading to a metabolic safeguard through an amino acid storage strategy. Plant Cell Physiol 45:1681–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chen C, Wabduragala S, Becker DF et al (2006) Tomato QM-like protein protects Saccromyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress by regulation intracellular proline levels. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:4001–4006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cheng Y, Wang J, Mary B et al (2013) Soil pH has contrasting effects on gross and net nitrogen mineralizations in adjacent forest and grassland soils in central Alberta, Canada. Soil Biol Biochem 57:848–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cheng Y, Wang C, Chai S et al (2018) Ammonium N influences the uptakes, translocations, subcellular distributions and chemical forms of Cd and Zn to mediate the Cd/Zn interactions in dwarf polish wheat (Triticum polonicum L.) seedlings. Chemosphere 193:1164–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chibuike G, Obiora S (2014) Heavy metal polluted soils: effect on plants and bioremediation methods. Appl Environ Soil Sci 2014:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chien HF, Kao CH (2000) Accumulation of ammonium in rice leaves in response to excess cadmium. Plant Sci 156:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Choppala G, Saifullah BN et al (2014) Cellular mechanisms in higher plants governing tolerance to cadmium toxicity. Crit Rev Plant Sci 33:374–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Chugh LK, Gupta VK, Sawhney SK (1992) Effect of cadmium on enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in pea seedlings. Phytochemistry 31:395–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cruz FJR, de Almeida HJ, dos Santos et al (2014) Growth, nutritional status and nitrogen metabolism in ‘Vigna unguiculata’ (L.) Walp is affected by aluminum. Aust J Crop Sci 8(7):1132Google Scholar
  50. Dabonne S, Koffi B, Kouadio E et al (2010) Traditional utensils: potential sources of poisoning by heavy metals. Br J Pharmacol Toxicol 151(2):90–92Google Scholar
  51. Dadhich RK, Meena RS (2014) Performance of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in response to foliar spray of thiourea and thioglycolic acid under different irrigation levels. Indian J Ecol 41(2):376–378Google Scholar
  52. Datta R, Anand S, Moulick A, Baraniya D, Pathan SI, Rejsek K, Vranova V, Sharma M, Sharma D, Kelkar A (2017a) How enzymes are adsorbed on soil solid phase and factors limiting its activity: a review. Int Agrophys 31(2):287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Datta R, Kelkar A, Baraniya D, Molaei A, Moulick A, Meena RS, Formanek P (2017b) Enzymatic degradation of lignin in soil: a review. Sustain MDPI 1163(9):1–18Google Scholar
  54. Datta R, Baraniya D, Wang Y-F, Kelkar A, Meena RS, Yadav GS, Teresa Ceccherini M, Formanek P (2017c) Amino acid: its dual role as nutrient and scavenger of free radicals in soil. Sustainability 9(8):1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Demidchik V, Sokolik A, Yurin V (1997) The effect of Cu2+ on ion transport systems of the plant cell plasmalemma. Plant Physiol 114:1313–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Devi SR, Prasad MNV (1999) Membrane lipid alterations in heavy metal exposed plants. In: Prasad MNV, Hagemeyer J (eds) Heavy metal stress in plants, from molecules to ecosystems. Springer, New York, pp 99–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dinakar N, Nagajyothi PC, Suresh S et al (2008) Phytotoxicity of cadmium on protein, proline and antioxidant enzyme activities in growing Arachis hypogaea L. seedlings. J Environ Sci 20(2):199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dinakar N, Nagajyothi PC, Suresh S et al (2009) Cadmium induced changes on proline, antioxidant enzymes, nitrate and nitrite reductases in Arachis hypogaea L. J Environ Biol 30(2):289–294Google Scholar
  59. Domínguez MJ, Gutiérrez F, León R (2003) Cadmium increases the activity levels of glutamate dehydrogenase and cysteine synthase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol Biochem 41:828–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ekmekci Y, Tanyolac D, Ayhan B (2008) Effects of cadmium on antioxidant enzyme and photosynthetic activities in leaves of two maize cultivars. J Plant Physiol 165:600–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Emamverdian A, Ding Y, Mokhberdoran F et al (2018) Growth responses and photosynthetic indices of bamboo plant (Indocalamus latifolius) under heavy metal stress. Sci World J 2018:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fageria NK, Filho MPB, Moreira A et al (2009) Foliar fertilization of crop plants. J Plant Nutr 32:1044–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fashola M, Ngole-Jeme V, Babalola O (2016) Heavy metal pollution from gold mines: environmental effects and bacterial strategies for resistance. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Fontaine JX, Saladino F, Agrimonti C et al (2006) Control of the synthesis and subcellular targeting of the two GDH gene products in leaves and stems of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol 47:410–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Frink CR, Waggoner PE, Ausubel JH (1999) Nitrogen fertilizer: retrospect and prospect. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96(4):1175–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gajewska E, Skłodowska M (2009) Nickel-induced changes in nitrogen metabolism in wheat shoots. J Plant Physiol 166:1034–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Garnett T, Conn V, Kaiser BN (2009) Root based approaches to improving nitrogen use efficiency in plants. Plant Cell Environ 32(9):1272–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Geiger M, Haake V, Ludewig F (1999) The nitrate and ammonium nitrate supply have a major influence on the response of photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, nitrogen metabolism and growth to elevated carbon dioxide in tobacco. Plant Cell Environ 22(10):1177–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ghosh S, Saha J, Biswas AK (2013) Interactive influence of arsenate and selenate on growth and nitrogen metabolism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Acta Physiol Plant 35(6):1873–1885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Giller KE, Witter E, McGrath SP (1998) Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial process in agricultural soils. A review. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1389–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gouia H, Ghorbal MH, Meyer C (2000a) Effects of cadmium on activity of nitrate reductase and on other enzymes of the nitrate assimilation pathway in bean. Plant Physiol Biochem 38:629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gouia H, Suzuki A, Brulfert J et al (2000b) Effects of cadmium on the co-ordination of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in bean seedlings. J Plant Physiol 160:367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gouia H, Suzuki A, Brulfert J et al (2003) Effects of cadmium on the co-ordination of nitrogen and carbon metabolism in bean seedlings. J Plant Physiol 160(4):367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Graham PH, Vance CP (2000) Nitrogen fixation in perspective: an overview of research and extension needs. Field Crops Res 65(2–3):93–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Greenwood NN, Earnshaw A (2012) Chemistry of the elements. Elsevier, Amsterdam/London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Groppa MD, Tomaro ML, Benavides MP (2007) Polyamines and heavy metal stress: the antioxidant behavior of spermine in cadmium-and copper-treated wheat leaves. Biometals 20(2):185–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gumpu MB, Sethuraman S, Krishnan UM et al (2015) A review on detection of heavy metal ions in water? An electrochemical approach. Sens Actuators B Chem 213:515–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hall JL (2002) Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance. J Exp Bot 53(366):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hernandez LE, Giirate A, Carpenta-Ruiz R (1996) Influence of cadmium on the assimilation of two cultivars of Zea mays. In: Cleemput OV, Hofman G, Vermoesen A (eds) Progress in nitrogen cycling studies. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 115–132Google Scholar
  80. Hernandez LE, Garate A, Carpena-Ruiz R (1997) Effects of cadmium on the uptake, distribution and assimilation of nitrate in Pisum sativum. Plant Soil 189:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Huang H, Xiong ZT (2009) Toxic effects of cadmium, acetochlor and bensulfuron-methyl on nitrogen metabolism and plant growth in rice seedlings. Pest Biochem Physiol 94:64–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hussain D, Haydon MJ, Wang Y et al (2004) P-type ATPase heavy metal transporters with roles in essential zinc homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 16:1327–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hussain S, Khan F, Cao W et al (2016) Seed priming alters the production and detoxification of reactive oxygen intermediates in rice seedlings grown under sub-optimal temperature and nutrient supply. Front Plant Sci 7.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00439
  84. Imran M, Kanwal S, Hussain S et al (2015) Efficacy of zinc application methods for concentration and estimated bioavailability of zinc in grains of rice grown on a calcareous soil. Pak J Agric Sci 52(1):169–175Google Scholar
  85. Ireland RJ, Lea PJ (1999) The enzymes ofglu-nine, glutamate, asparagine and aspartate metabolism. In: Singh BK (ed) Plant amino acids: biochemistry and biotechnology, vol 109. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. Islam MM, Hoque MA, Okuma E et al (2010) Exogenous proline and glycinebetaine increase antioxidant enzyme activities and confer tolerance to cadmium stress in cultured tobacco cells. J Plant Physiol 166:1587–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jerzykiewicz J (2001) Aluminium effect on the nitrate assimilation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) roots. Acta Physiol Plant 23:213–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Jha AB, Dubey RS (2004) Arsenic exposure alters activity behavior of key nitrogen assimilatory enzymes in growing rice plants. Plant Growth Regul 43:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kakkar RK, Sawhney VK (2002) Polyamine research in plants–a changing perspective. Physiol Plant 116(3):281–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kalyanaraman SB, Sivagurunathan P (1993) Effect of cadmium, copper and zinc on the growth of blackgram. J Plant Nutr 16:2029–2042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kapoor V, Li X, Elk M et al (2015) Impact of heavy metals on transcriptional and physiological activity of nitrifying bacteria. Environ Sci Technol 49(22):13454–13462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Kevrešan S, Petrović N, Popović M et al (1998) Effect of heavy metals on nitrate and protein metabolism in sugar beet. Biol Plant 41(2):235–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kevrešan S, Petrović N, Popović M et al (2001) Nitrogen and protein metabolism in young pea plants as affected by different concentrations of nickel, cadmium, lead, and molybdenum. J Plant Nutr 24(10):1633–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Khan F, Hussain S, Tanveer M et al (2018) Coordinated effects of lead toxicity and nutrient deprivation on growth, oxidative status, and elemental composition of primed and non-primed rice seedlings. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:1–10Google Scholar
  95. Krapp A, Fraisier V, Schleible WR et al (1998) Expression studies ofNrt2: INp, a putative high affinity nitrate transporter: evidence for its role in nitrate uptake. Plant J 6:723–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kubik-Dobosz G, Halajko T, Gbrska A (2001) Expression of amtl gene in the presence of some toxic ions. Acta Physiol Plant 23:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kumar S, Meena RS, Yadav GS, Pandey A (2017) Response of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) to sulphur and lime application under soil acidity. Int J Plant Soil Sci 14(4):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lam HM, Coschigano KT, Melo-Oliveira O et al (1996) The molecular genetics of nitrogen assimilation into amino acids in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47:569–593Google Scholar
  99. Lee KC, Cunningham BA, Paulsen GM et al (1976) Effects of cadmium on respiration rate and activities of several enzymes in soybean seedlings. Physiol Plant 36(1):4–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lehmann S, Funck D, Szabados L et al (2010) Proline metabolism and transport in plant development. Amino Acids 39(4):949–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Li P, Lu J, Wang Y et al (2018) Nitrogen losses, use efficiency, and productivity of early rice under controlled-release urea. Agric Ecosyst Environ 251:78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Llorens N, Arola L, Blade C et al (2000) Effects of copper exposure upon nitrogen metabolism in tissue cultured Vitis vinifera. Plant Sci 160:159–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Lloyd DR, Phillips DH (1999) Oxidative DNA damage mediated by copper (II), iron (II) and nickel (II) Fenton reactions: evidence for site-specific mechanisms in the formation of double-strand breaks, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and putative intrastrand cross-links. Mutat Res/Fundam Mol Mech Mutagen 424(1):23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lojkova L, Datta R, Sajna M, Marfo TD, Janous D, Pavelka M, Formanek P (2015) Limitation of proteolysis in soils of forests and other types of ecosystems by diffusion of substrate. In: Amino acids, vol 8. Springer, Wien, pp 1690–1691Google Scholar
  105. Loulakakis KA, Loulakakis-Roubelakis KA (1996) The seven NAD(H)-glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes exhibit similar anabolic and catabolic activities. Physiol Plant 96:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ma B, Wang S, Cao S et al (2016) Biological nitrogen removal from sewage via anammox: recent advances. Bioresour Technol 200:981–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Malar S, Vikram SS, Favas PJ et al (2016) Lead heavy metal toxicity induced changes on growth and antioxidative enzymes level in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)]. Bot Stud 55(1):54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mandal SM, Gouri SS, De D et al (2011) Effect of arsenic on nodulation and nitrogen fixation of blackgram (Vigna mungo). Indian J Microbiol 51(1):44–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mandal C, Ghosh N, Dey N et al (2013) Physiological responses of Salvinia natans L to aluminium stress and its interaction with putrescine. J Stress Physiol Biochem 9(4):1Google Scholar
  110. Marfo TD, Datta R, Lojkova L, Janous D, Pavelka M, Formanek P (2015) Limitation of activity of acid phosphomonoesterase in soils. In: Amino acids, vol 8. Springer, Wien, pp 1690–1691Google Scholar
  111. Masclaux-Daubresse C, Valadier MH, Carrayol E et al (2002) Diurnal changes in the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase are involved in the C/N balance of tobacco source leaves. Plant Cell Environ 25:1451–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Matiru VN, Dakora FD (2004) Potential use of rhizobial bacteria as promoters of plant growth for increased yield in landraces of African cereal crops. Afr J Biotechnol 3(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Mattioni C, Gabbrielli R, Vangronsveld J et al (1997) Nickel and cadmium toxicity and enzymatic activity in intolerant and non-tolerant populations of Silene italica Pers. J Plant Physiol 150(1–2):173–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Matysik J, Alia BB et al (2002) Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Curr Sci 10:525–532Google Scholar
  115. McAllister CH, Beatty PH, Good AG (2012) Engineering nitrogen use efficient crop plants: the current status. Plant Biotechnol J 10(9):1011–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Meena H, Meena RS (2017) Assessment of sowing environments and bio-regulators as adaptation choice for clusterbean productivity in response to current climatic scenario. Bangladesh J Bot 46(1):241–244Google Scholar
  117. Meena RS, Yadav RS (2015) Yield and profitability of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) as influenced by sowing dates and nutrient levels with different varieties. Leg Res 38(6):791–797Google Scholar
  118. Meena RS, Kumar S, Pandey A (2017) Response of sulfur and lime levels on productivity, nutrient content and uptake of sesame under guava (Psidium guajava L.) based Agri-horti system in an acidic soil of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. J Crop Weed 13(2):222–227Google Scholar
  119. Meena RS, Kumar V, Yadav GS, Mitran T (2018) Response and interaction of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soybean rhizosphere: a review. Plant Growth Regul 84:207–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mengel, Kirkby (1987) Further elements of importance. Principle of plant nutrition, 4th edn. IPI Bern, Switzerland, pp 577–582Google Scholar
  121. Mevel G, Prieur D (2000) Heterotrophic nitrification by a thermophilic Bacillus species as influenced by different culture conditions. Can J Microbiol 46(5):465–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Michalak A (2006) Phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in plants growing under heavy metal stress. Pol J Environ Stud 15(4):523–530Google Scholar
  123. Miflin BJ, Habash DZ (2002) The role of glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation and possibilities for improvement in the nitrogen utilization of crops. J Exp Bot 53:979–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Miflin BJ, Lea PJ, Wallsgrove RM (1980) The role of glutamine in ammonia assimilation and reassimilation in plants. In: Glutamine: metabolism, enzymology, and regulation. Academic Press, New York, pp 213–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Miller JO (2016) Soil PH and nutrient availability. http://hdl.handle.net/1903/18519
  126. Miller AJ, Smith SJ (1996) Nitrate transport and compartmentation in cereal root cells. J Exp Bot 47:1455–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mittal S, Sawhney SK (1990) Influence of lead on enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in germinating pea seeds. Plant Physiol Biochem 17:73Google Scholar
  128. Molaei A, Lakzian A, Datta R, Haghnia G, Astaraei A, Rasouli-Sadaghiani M, Ceccherini MT (2017a) Impact of chlortetracycline and sulfapyridine antibiotics on soil enzyme activities. Int Agrophys 31(4):499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Molaei A, Lakzian A, Haghnia G, Astaraei A, Rasouli-Sadaghiani M, Ceccherini MT, Datta R (2017b) Assessment of some cultural experimental methods to study the effects of antibiotics on microbial activities in a soil: an incubation study. PLoS One 12(7):e0180663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Myers RJK (1975) Temperature effects on ammonification and nitrification in a tropical soil. Soil Biol Biochem 7:83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Nichol BE, Oliveira LA, Glass ADM (1993) The effects of aluminum on the influx of calcium, potassium, ammonium, nitrate and phosphate in an aluminum-sensitive cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plant Physiol 101:1263–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Oaks A (1994) Primary nitrogen assimilation in higher plants and its regulation. Can J Bot 72(6):739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Orzechowski S, Bielawski W (1997) Heavy metals and ammonium assimilation in triticale. J Appl Genet 38:265–270Google Scholar
  134. Orzechowski S, Kwinta J, Gworek B et al (1997) Biochemical indicators of environmental contamination with heavy metals. Pol J Environ Stud 6:47–50Google Scholar
  135. Pajuelo E, Rodríguez-Llorente ID, Dary M et al (2008) Toxic effects of arsenic on Sinorhizobium–Medicago sativa symbiotic interaction. Environ Pollut 154(2):203–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Pandey M, Srivastava HS (1993) Inhibition of nitrate reductase activity and nitrate accumulation by mercury in maize leaf segments. Indian J Environ Health 39:473–481Google Scholar
  137. Parlak KU (2016) Effect of nickel on growth and biochemical characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. NJAS-Wageningen J Life Sci 76:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Paudyal SP, Aryal RR, Chauhan SVS et al (2007) Effect of heavy metals on growth of rhizobium strains and symbiotic efficiency of two species of tropical legumes. Sci World 5:27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Pérez-Tienda J, Corrêa A, Azcón-Aguilar C et al (2014) Transcriptional regulation of host NH4+ transporters and GS/GOGAT pathway in arbuscular mycorrhizal rice roots. Plant Physiol Biochem 75:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Perkins LB, Johnson DW, Nowak RS (2011) Plant-induced changes in soil nutrient dynamics by native and invasive grass species. Plant Soil 345(1–2):365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Popović M, Kevrešan S, Kandrač J et al (1996) The role of sulphur in detoxification of cadmium in young sugar beet plants. Biol Plant 38(2):281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Prasad MN, Strzalka K (eds) (2013) Physiology and biochemistry of metal toxicity and tolerance in plants. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  143. Quesada A, Hidalgo J, Femandez E (1997) Three nrt genes are differentially regulated in Chlamydomonas. Mol Genet 258:373–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Rai V, Vajpayee P, Singh SN et al (2004) Effect of chromium accumulation on photosynthetic pigments, oxidative stress defense system, nitrate reduction, proline level and eugenol content of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Plant Sci 167(5):1159–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Ram K, Meena RS (2014) Evaluation of pearl millet and mungbean intercropping systems in arid region of Rajasthan (India). Bangladesh J Bot 43(3):367–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rengel Z, Bose J, Chen Q et al (2016) Magnesium alleviates plant toxicity of aluminium and heavy metals. Crop Pasture Sci 66(12):1298–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Riaz M, Yan L, Wu X et al (2018a) Boron alleviates the aluminum toxicity in trifoliate orange by regulating antioxidant defense system and reducing root cell injury. J Environ Manag 208:149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Riaz M, Yan L, Wu X et al (2018b) Boron reduces aluminum-induced growth inhibition, oxidative damage and alterations in the cell wall components in the roots of trifoliate orange. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 153:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Riaz M, Yan L, Wu X et al (2018c) Mechanisms of organic acids and boron induced tolerance of aluminum toxicity: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 165:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Rosales EP, Iannone MF, Groppa MD et al (2012) Polyamines modulate nitrate reductase activity in wheat leaves: involvement of nitric oxide. Amino Acids 42(2–3):857–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Ruiz JM, Rivero RM, Romero L (2007) Comparative effect of Al, Se, and Mo toxicity on NO3 assimilation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. J Environ Manag 83(2):207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Saifullah N, Sarwar S, Bibi M et al (2014) Effectiveness of zinc application to minimize cadmium toxicity and accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Environ Earth Sci 71:1663–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Santamarı’a MM, Marrero ARD, Herna’ndez J et al (2003) Effect of thorium on the growth and capsule morphology of Bradyrhizobium. Environ Microbiol 5:916–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sarwar N, Malhi SS, Zia MH et al (2010) Role of mineral nutrition in minimizing cadmium accumulation by plants. J Sci Food Agric 90(6):925–937Google Scholar
  155. Sarwar N, Ishaq W, Farid G et al (2015) Zinc-cadmium interactions: impact on wheat physiology and mineral acquisition. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 122:528–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sarwar N, Imran M, Shaheen MR et al (2017) Phytoremediation strategies for soils contaminated with heavy metals: modifications and future perspectives. Chemosphere 171:710–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Schmitt M, Watanabe T, Jansen S (2016) The effects of aluminium on plant growth in a temperate and deciduous aluminium accumulating species. AoB Plants 8:plw065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Selosse MA, Baudoin E, Vandenkoornhuyse P (2004) Symbiotic microorganisms, a key for ecological success and protection of plants. C R Biol 327(7):639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sen G, Eryilmaz IE, Ozakca D (2014) The effect of aluminium-stress and exogenous spermidine on chlorophyll degradation, glutathione reductase activity and the photosystem II D1 protein gene (psbA) transcript level in lichen Xanthoria parietina. Phytochemistry 98:54–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Seth CS (2012) A review on mechanisms of plant tolerance and role of transgenic plants in environmental clean-up. Bot Rev 78(1):32–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Shah K, Dubey RS (2003) Environmental stresses and their impact on nitrogen assimilation in higher plants. In: Hemantranjan A (ed) Advances in plant physiology, vol 5. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, pp 397–431Google Scholar
  162. Shahzad B, Tanveer M, Rehman A (2018) Nickel; whether toxic or essential for plants and environment: a review. Plant Physiol Biochem 132:641.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.10.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sharma SS, Dietz KJ (2006) The significance of amino acids and amino acid-derived molecules in plant responses and adaptation to heavy metal stress. J Exp Bot 57(4):711–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sharma P, Dubey RS (2005) Modulation of nitrate reductase activity in rice seedlings under aluminium toxicity and water stress: role of osmolytes as enzyme protectant. J Plant Physiol 162(8):854–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Sharma JOT, Subhadra AV (2010) The effect of mercury on nitrate reductase activity in bean leaf segments (Phaseolus vulgaris) and its chelation by phytochelatin synthesis. Life Sci Med Res 2010:1–8Google Scholar
  166. Sharma SS, Schat H, Vooijs R (1998) In vitro alleviation of heavy metal-induced enzyme inhibition by proline. Phytochemistry 49(6):1531–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Shaw BP, Sahu SK, Mishra RK (2004) Heavy metal induced oxidative damage in terrestrial plants. In: Presad MNV (ed) Heavy metal stress in plants: from biomolecules to ecosystems, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 84–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Shi H, Chan Z (2014) Improvement of plant abiotic stress tolerance through modulation of the polyamine pathway. J Integr Plant Biol 56(2):114–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Shruti M, Dubey RS (2006) Heavy metal uptake and detoxification mechanisms in plants. Int J Agric Res 1:122–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Silveira JAG, Melo ARB, Viégas RA et al (2001) Salinity-induced effects on nitrogen assimilation related to growth in cowpea plants. Environ Exp Bot 46(2):171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Singh PK, Tewari RK (2003) Cadmium toxicity induced changes in plant water relations and oxidative metabolism of Brassica juncea L. plants. J Environ Biol 24(1):107–112Google Scholar
  172. Singh RP, Singh DP, Jaiwal PK (2008) Nitrate and ammonium transporters in plants. Plant membrane and vacuolar transporters. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 83–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Singh H, Singh A, Hussain I et al (2017) Oxidative stress induced by lead in Vigna radiata L. seedling attenuated by exogenous nitric oxide. Trop Plant Res 4(2):225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Skopelitis DS, Paranychianakis NV, Paschalidis KA et al (2006) Abiotic stress generates ROS that signal expression of anionic glutamate dehydrogenases to form glutamate for proline synthesis in tobacco and grapevine. Plant Cell 18:2767–2781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Stan V, Gament E, Corena CP et al (2011) Effects of heavy metal from polluted soils on the rhizobium diversity. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 39:88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Stitt M (1999) Nitrate regulation of metabolism and growth. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2:178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Syntichaki KM, Loulakakis KA, Loulakakis-Roubelakis KA (1996) The amino-acid sequence similarity of plant glutamate dehydrogenase to the extremophilic archaeal enzyme conforms to its stress-related function. Gene 68:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Szabados L, Savoure A (2010) Proline: a multifunctional amino acid. Trends Plant Sci 15:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Talano MA, Cejas RB, González PS et al (2013) Arsenic effect on the model crop symbiosis Bradyrhizobium–soybean. Plant Physiol Biochem 63:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Terce-Laforgue´ T, Dubois F, Ferrario-Me’ry S et al (2004) Glutamate dehydrogenase of tobacco is mainly induced in the cytosol of phloem companion cells when ammonia is provided either externally or released during photorespiration. Plant Physiol 136:4308–4317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Vajpayee P, Tripathi RD, Rai UN et al (2000) Chromium (VI) accumulation reduces chlorophyll biosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and protein content in Nymphaea alba L. Chemosphere 41:1075–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Van Assche F, Cardinaels C, Clijsters H (1988) Induction of enzyme capacity in plants as a result of heavy metal toxicity: dose-response relations in Phaseolus vulgaris L., treated with zinc and cadmium. Environ Pollut 52(2):103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Varma D, Meena RS, Kumar S (2017) Response of mungbean to fertility and lime levels under soil acidity in an alley cropping system in Vindhyan region, India. Int J Chem Stud 5(2):384–389Google Scholar
  184. Verkleij JA, Golan-Goldhirsh A, Antosiewisz DM et al (2009) Dualities in plant tolerance to pollutants and their uptake and translocation to the upper plant parts. Environ Exp Bot 67(1):10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Verma SK, Singh SB, Prasad SK, Meena RN, Meena RS (2015) Influence of irrigation regimes and weed management practices on water use and nutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Emend. Fiori and Paol.). Bangladesh J Bot 44(3):437–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Wang MY, Siddiqi MY, Ruth TJ et al (1993) Ammonium uptake by rice roots. Plant Physiol 103:1259–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wang L, Zhou Q, Ding L et al (2008) Effect of cadmium toxicity on nitrogen metabolism in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a newly found cadmium hyperaccumulator. J Hazard Mater 154:818–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Wang Y, Lu J, Ren T et al (2017) Effects of nitrogen and tiller type on grain yield and physiological responses in rice. AoB Plants 9.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plx012
  189. Wani PA (2008) Heavy metal toxicity to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and certain legume crops. Ph.D. Thesis, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  190. Wani PA, Khan MS, Zaidi A (2007) Impact of heavy metal toxicity on plant growth, symbiosis, seed yield and nitrogen and metal uptake in chickpea. Aust J Exp Agric 47(6):712–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Weber MB, Schat H, Ten Bookum-Van Der Maarel WM (1991) The effect of copper toxicity on the contents of nitrogen compounds in Silvena vulgaris (Moench) Garcke. Plant Soil 133:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Wu LH, Luo YM, Xing XR et al (2004) EDTA-enhanced phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with Indian mustard and associated potential leaching risk. Agric Ecosyst Environ 102(3):307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Xiong ZT, Liu C, Geng B (2006a) Phytotoxic effects of copper on nitrogen metabolism and plant growth in Brassica pekinensis Rupr. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 64(3):273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Xiong ZT, Zhao F, Li MJ (2006b) Lead toxicity in Brassica pekinensis Rupr.: effect on nitrate assimilation and growth. Environ Toxicol Int J 21(2):147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Xu J, Yin H, Li X (2009) Protective effects of proline against cadmium toxicity in micropropagated hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L. Plant Cell Rep 28(2):325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Yadav GS, Babu S, Meena RS, Debnath C, Saha P, Debbaram C, Datta M (2017) Effects of godawariphosgold and single supper phosphate on groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) productivity, phosphorus uptake, phosphorus use efficiency and economics. Indian J Agric Sci 87(9):1165–1169Google Scholar
  197. Yancey PH (2005) Organic osmolytes as compatible, metabolic and counteracting cytoprotectants in high osmolarity and other stresses. J Exp Biol 208:2819–2830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Yang Y, Zhang Y, Wei X et al (2011) Comparative antioxidative responses and proline metabolism in two wheat cultivars under short term lead stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74(4):733–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Yao S, Ni JR, Ma T et al (2013) Heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification at low temperature by a newly isolated bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. HA2. Bioresour Technol 139:80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Yu CC, Hung KT, Kao CH (2005) Nitric oxide reduces Cu toxicity and Cu-induced NH4+ accumulation in rice leaves. J Plant Physiol 162(12):1319–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Zhou X, Gu Z, Xu H et al (2016) The effects of exogenous ascorbic acid on the mechanism of physiological and biochemical responses to nitrate uptake in two rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) under aluminum stress. J Plant Growth Regul 35(4):1013–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Zia-ur-Rehman M, Sabir M, Nadeem M (2015) Remediating cadmium-contaminated soils by growing grain crops using inorganic amendments. In: Soil remediation and plants: prospects and challenges. Elsevier Inc/Academic, London, pp 367–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saddam Hussain
    • 1
  • Abdul Khaliq
    • 1
  • Mehmood Ali Noor
    • 2
  • Mohsin Tanveer
    • 3
  • Hafiz Athar Hussain
    • 4
  • Sadam Hussain
    • 1
  • Tariq Shah
    • 5
  • Tariq Mehmood
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of AgronomyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology, Ministry of AgricultureBeijingChina
  3. 3.Tasmania Institute of AgricultureUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  4. 4.Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in AgricultureChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Oil Crops Research InstituteChinese Academy of Agriculture ScienceWuhanChina
  6. 6.Institute of Cotton ResearchChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations