Advertisement

Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization Dynamics: A Perspective in Rice-Wheat Cropping System

  • Kirti Saurabh
  • Rakesh Kumar
  • J. S. Mishra
  • Hansraj Hans
  • Narendra Kumawat
  • Ram Swaroop Meena
  • K. K. Rao
  • Manoj Kumar
  • A. K. Dubey
  • M. L. Dotaniya
Chapter

Abstract

Rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS), one of the prominent agricultural production systems, at an area of ~26 M ha is confined to the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGPs) in South Asia and China. Crop residues obtained from field crops are essential sources of nutrition and organic carbon (40% of total dry biomass constituted by C) for the next crops, and hence they not only increase the agricultural productivity but also are responsible for the better quality of soil, water, and air. Perhaps the most important challenge facing exhaustive RWCS in all regions of the world is effective management of post-harvest crop residues. Disposal of wheat residue is easy as it can be used to feed animals. However, due to the presence of high silica content, rice residue is usually burned. Residue burning is the main method of disposal in areas under combined harvesting in the IGPs of eastern India as it reduces cost. However, burning of crop residue (CR) is not eco-friendly as it results in fast degradation of soil organic matter and nutrients and increased CO2 emission creating intense air pollution as well as global warming. Therefore, exploitation of CR is a crucial element for a sustainable production system, and it has generated much interest in the recent years by reducing the consequence of residue burning and increasing the soil organic matter (SOM) and the nutrient-supplying capacity. CR retention infield can be considered a key element in promoting soil health with increased physical, chemical, and biological properties. In RWCS, residue management can be done by (1) wheat residue retention in rice and its residual effect in succeeding wheat crop, (2) rice straw retention in wheat and its residual impact in following rice, and (3) wheat straw retention in rice and rice straw retention in wheat (cumulative effect). All these crop residue management systems depend on a systematic understanding of the factors that control residue decomposition and their careful application. Significant factors, such as tillage/CR management, influence soil microbial activity and biomass, bulk density, soil moisture content, porosity, soil structure stability, and nutrient-supplying capacity of the soil. Thus, the variations in soil properties consequently bring change in soil C and N dynamics and have an impact on plants’ nutrient uptake capacity.

Furthermore, residue quality and quantity are found to affect C and N mineralization rates. Plant remains with higher quality (high N contents; low ratios of C/N; low lignin, cellulose, and polyphenol contents; and lignin/N) show high C decomposition and N mineralization rates. In this way residue retention leads to enhancing nutrient balances and better crop yield. However, there is a requisite to study decomposition and nutrient dynamics in RWCS soil under different residue management system, so that accurate composition of integrated nutrient management (INM) can be developed for this prominent system.

Keywords

Carbon Nitrogen Crop residues Residue decomposition Nutrient dynamics 

Abbreviations

AMF

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

CEC

Cation exchange capacity

CR

Crop residue

CRM

Crop residue management

FDA

Fluorescein diacetate

GHG

Greenhouse gas

GM

Green manuring

GWP

Global warming potentials

IGPs

Indo-Gangetic Plains

INM

Integrated nutrient management

MWD

Mean weight diameter

NT

No-tillage

OM

Organic matter

PRQI

Plant residue quality index

RT

Reduced tillage

RWCS

Rice-wheat cropping system

SCS

Soil carbon storage

SMB

Soil microbial biomass

SMBC

Soil microbial biomass carbon

SOC

Soil organic carbon

SOM

Soil organic matter

TN

Total nitrogen

WSA

Water-stable aggregates

ZT

Zero tillage

References

  1. Abao EBJ, Bronson KF, Wassmann R, Singh U (2000) Simultaneous records of methane and nitrous oxide emissions in rice-based cropping systems under rain fed conditions. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 58:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acharya CL, Kapur OC, Dixit SP (1998) Moisture conservation for rainfed wheat production with alternative mulches and conservation tillage in the hills of north-west India. Soil Tillage Res 46:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali I, Nabi G (2016) Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization dynamics following incorporation and surface application of rice and wheat residues. Soil Environ 2:207–215Google Scholar
  4. Amato M, Ladd JN (1992) Decomposition of 14C-labelled glucose and legume material in soils. Properties influencing the accumulation of organic residue C and microbial biomass. C Soil Biol Biochem 24:455–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aulakh MS, Wassmann R, Rennenberg H (2001) Methane emissions from rice field– quantification, mechanisms, role of management, and mitigation options. Adv Agron 70:193–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baggs EM, Stevenson M, Pihlatie M, Regar A, Cook H, Cadisch G (2003) Nitrous oxide emissions following application of residues and fertilizer under zero and conventional tillage. Plant Soil 254:361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bayer C, Mielniczuk J, Amado TJC, Martin-Neto L, Fernandes SV (2000) Organic matter storage in a sandy clay loam Acrisol affected by tillage and cropping systems in southern Brazil. Soil Tillage Res 54:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berg B, Tamm O (1991) Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of litter in long-term optimum nutrition experiments. Scand J For Res 6:305–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berg B, Hannus K, Popoff T, Theander O (1982) Changes in organic chemical components of needle litter during decomposition. Long term decomposition in a Scots pine forest. Can J Bot 60:1310–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhanwaria B, Ram M, Kumar KN, Kumar R (2013) Influence of fertilizers levels and biofertilizers on growth and yield of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) under rainfed condition of South Gujarat. Madras Agric J 100:4–6Google Scholar
  11. Bhupinderpal-Singh, Rengel Z, Jw B (2006) Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycling following incorporation of canola residue of different sizes into a nutrient-poor sandy soil. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1591–1597Google Scholar
  12. Bohra JS, Kumar R (2015) Effect of crop establishment methods on productivity, profitability and energetics of rice (Oryza sativa)–wheat (Triticum aestivum) system. Indian J Agric Sci 85(2):217–223Google Scholar
  13. Bonn BA, Fish W (1991) Variability in the measurement of humic carboxyl content. Environ Sci Technol 25:232–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bradley RL, Grenon F (2006) Evidence that straw does not increase the mobilization of N from decomposing salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh.) leaf litter. Soil Biol Biochem 38:191–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breulmann M, Masyutenko NP, Kogut BM, Schroll R, Dorfler U, Buscot F, Schulz E (2014) Short-term bioavailability of carbon in soil organic matter fractions of different particle sizes and densities in grassland ecosystems. Sci Total Environ 498:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bruun S, Luxhoi J, Magid J, De Neergaard A, Jensen LS (2006) A nitrogen mineralization model based on relationships for gross mineralization and immobilization. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2712–2721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bruun TB, Elberling B, Neergaard A, Magid J (2015) Organic carbon dynamics in different soil types after conversion of forest to agriculture. Land Degrad Dev 3:272–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Butterly CR, Kaudal BB, Baldock JA, Tang C (2011) Contribution of soluble and insoluble fractions of agricultural residues to short-term pH changes. Eur J Soil Sci 62:718–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carlyle JC, Bligh MW, Nambiar EKS (1998) Woody residue management to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus leaching from sandy soil after clearfelling Pinus radiate plantations. Can J For Res 28:1222–1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chan KY (2001) An overview of some tillage impacts on earthworm population abundance and diversity-implications for functioning in soils. Soil Tillage Res 57:179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chan KY, Heenan DP (2006) Earthworm population dynamics under conservation tillage systems in south-eastern Australia. Aust J Soil Res 44:425–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chand S, Kumar R, Singh AK (2017) Effects of tillage practices on productivity of wheat under Indo-Gangetic Plains. J AgriSearch 3(209–211):4–03Google Scholar
  23. Chauhan S (2010) Biomass resources assessment for power generation: a case study from Haryana state, India. Biomass Bioenergy 34:1300–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chen L, Zhang J, Zhao B, Yan P, Zhou G, Xin X (2014) Effects of straw amendment and moisture on microbial communities in Chinese fluvo-aquic soil. J Soils Sediments 14:1829–1840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chivenge P, Murwira H, Giller K, Mapfumo P, Six J (2007) Long-term impact reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soils. Soil Tillage Res 94:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Choudhary HR, Sharma OP, Singh RK, Singh K, Yadav L, Kumar R (2013) Influence of organic manures and chemical fertilizer on nutrient uptake, yield and profitability of mungbean [Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek]. Madras Agric J 100(1–3):747–750Google Scholar
  27. Cong WF, Hoffland E, Li L, Janssen BH, van der Werf W (2015) Intercropping affects the rate of decomposition of soil organic matter and root litter. Plant Soil 391:399–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Datta R, Vranová V, Pavelka M, Rejšek K, Formánek P (2014) Effect of soil sieving on respiration induced by low-molecular-weight substrates. Int Agrophys 28(1):119–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Datta R, Anand S, Moulick A, Baraniya D, Pathan SI, Rejsek K, Vranova V, Sharma M, Sharma D, Kelkar A (2017a) How enzymes are adsorbed on soil solid phase and factors limiting its activity: a review. Int Agrophys 31(2):287–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Datta R, Kelkar A, Baraniya D, Molaei A, Moulick A, Meena R, Formanek P (2017b) Enzymatic degradation of lignin in soil: a review. Sustainability 9(7):1163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Datta R, Baraniya D, Wang Y-F, Kelkar A, Meena RS, Yadav GS, Teresa Ceccherini M, Formanek P (2017c) Amino acid: its dual role as nutrient and scavenger of free radicals in soil. Sustainability 9(8):1402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Debosz K, Rasmussen PH, Pedersen AR (1999) Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input. Appl Soil Ecol 13:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. DeNeve S, Pannier J, Hofman G (1996) Temperature effects on C-and N-mineralization from vegetable crop residues. Plant Soil 1:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Devi S, Gupta C, Jat SL, Parmar MS (2017) Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: the case of India. Open Agric 2(1):486–494Google Scholar
  35. Dhar D, Datta A, Basak N, Paul N, Badole S, Thomas T (2014) Residual effect of crop residues on growth, yield attributes and soil properties of wheat under rice-wheat cropping system. Indian J Agric Res 5:373–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dhillon RS, von Wuehlisch G (2013) Mitigation of global warming through renewable biomass. Biomass Bioenergy 48:75–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Duchaufour P (1984) Edafologia: Edafogenesis clarification. Masson, Barcelona, 493 ppGoogle Scholar
  38. Duiker SW, Beegle DB (2006) Soil fertility distributions in long-term no-till, chisel/disk and moldboard plow/disk systems. Soil Tillage Res 88:30–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Edwards L, Burney J, Richter G, MacRae A (2000) Evaluation of compost and straw mulching on soil-loss characteristics in erosion plots of potatoes in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Agric Ecosyst Environ 81:217–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Emmanuel B, Fagbola O, Abaidoo R, Osonubi O, Oyetunji O (2010) Abundance and distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species in long-term soil fertility management systems in northern Nigeria. J Plant Nutr 33:1264–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Erenstein O (2002) Crop residue mulching in tropical and semi-tropical countries: an evaluation of residue availability and other technological implications. Soil Tillage Res 67:115–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Errouissi F, Nouira S, Ben Moussa-Machraoui S, Ben-Hammouda M (2011) Soil invertebrates in durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) cropping system under Mediterranean semi arid conditions: a comparison between conventional and no-tillage management. Soil Tillage Res 112:122–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fontaine S, Barot S, Barré P, Bdioui N, Mary B, Rumpel C (2007) Stability of organic carbon in deep soil layers controlled by fresh carbon supply. Nature 450:277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frankenberger WT, Abdelmagid HM (1985) Kinetic parameters of nitrogen mineralization rates of leguminous crops incorporated into soil. Plant Soil 87:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Franzluebbers A, Haney R, Hons F, Zuberer D (1999) Assessing biological soil quality with chloroform. Can J Soil Sci 79:521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fruit L, Recous S, Richard G (1999) Plant residue decomposition: effect of soil porosity and particle size. In: Effect of mineral-organic-microorganism interactions on soil and freshwater environment. Springer, Boston, pp 189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Georgieva LL (1998) Influence of soil tillage, fertilizer application and herbicides on yield of maik grown as second crop for silage. Lasteview dni-Nanki 35:192–195Google Scholar
  48. Goh KM, Tutua SS (2004) Effects of organic and plant residue quality and orchard management on decomposition rates of residues. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 35:1532–2416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Govaerts B, Sayre KD, Ceballos-Ramirez JM, Luna-Guido ML, Limon-Ortega A, Deckers L, Dendooven L (2006) Conventionally tilled and permanent raised beds with different crop residue management: effects on soil. C N Dyn Plant Soil 280:143–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Govaerts B, Mezzalama M, Unno Y, Sayre KD, Luna-Guido M, Vanherck K, Deckers J (2007) Influence of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on soil microbial biomass and catabolic diversity. Appl Soil Ecol 37(1–2):18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Graham MH, Rj H, Jh M (2002) Soil organic matter content and quality: effects of fertilizer applications, burning and trash retention on long-term sugarcane experiment in South Africa. Soil Biol Biochem 34:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Granatstein D, McGuire A, Amara M (2017) Improving soil quality on irrigated soils in the Columbia Basin. Washington State University Extension, PullmanGoogle Scholar
  53. Green CJ, Blackmer AM, Horton R (1995) Nitrogen effects on conservation of carbon during corn residue decomposition in soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 59:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gupta PK, Sahai S, Singh N, Dixit CK, Singh DP, Sharma C, Tiwari MK, Gupta RK, Garg SC (2004) Residue burning in rice–wheat cropping system: causes and implications. Curr Sci 87:1713–1717Google Scholar
  55. Handa IT, Aerts R, Berendse F, Berg MP, Bruder A, Butenschoen O, Chauvet E, Gessner MO, Jabiol J, Makkonen M, McKie BG, Malmqvist B, Peeters ETHM, Scheu S, Schmid B, Van Ruijven J, Vos VCA, Hättenschwiler S (2014) Consequences of biodiversity loss for litter decomposition across biomes. Nature 509:218–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Homann PS, Grigal DF (1996) Below-ground organic carbon and decomposition potential in a field-forest glacial-outwash landscape. Soil Biol Biochem 23:207–214Google Scholar
  57. Huang WZ, Schoenau JJ (1997) Mass loss measurements and statistical models to predict decomposition of leaf litter in a Boreal Aspen Forest. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 28:863–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hulugalle NR, Maurya PR (1991) Tillage systems for the West African semi-arid tropics. Soil Tillage Res 20:197–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Islam KR, Weil RR (2000) Land use effects on soil quality in a tropical forest ecosystem of Bangladesh. Agric Ecosyst Environ 79:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Janzen HH, Bole JB, Biederbeck VO, Slinkard AE (1990) Fate of nitrogen applied as green manure or ammonium fertilizer to soil subsequently cropped with spring wheat at three sites in Western Canada. Can J Soil Sci 70:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jeet S, Singh D, Kumar R, Kumari A (2010) Yield and physico-chemical properties of soil as affected by seeding rates and nitrogen levels in relation to crop residue management on bed planted soybean (Glycine max)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) system. Environ Ecol 28(3B):2063–2067Google Scholar
  62. Kirschbaum MUF (1995) The temperature dependence of soil organic matter decomposition, and the effect of global warming on soil organic storage. Soil Biol Biochem 27:753–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kozak JA, Ahuja LR, Green TR, Ma L (2007) Modelling crop canopy and residue rainfall interception effects on soil hydrological components for semi-arid agriculture. Hydrol Process 21:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kumar R (2015a) Influence of mulching, liming and farm yard manures on production potential, economics and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under rainfed condition of Eastern Himalaya. Bangladesh J Bot 44:3–391Google Scholar
  65. Kumar R (2015b) Productivity, profitability and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays) as influenced by management practices in North-East India. Indian J Agron 60(2):273–278Google Scholar
  66. Kumar K, Goh KM (2000) Crop residues and management practices: effects on soil quality, soil nitrogen dynamics, crop yields, and nitrogen recovery. Adv Agron 68:197–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kumar R, Kumawat N (2014) Effect of sowing dates, seed rates and integrated nutrition on productivity, profitability and nutrient uptake of summer mungbean in Eastern Himalaya. Arch Agron Soil Sci 60(9):1207–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kumar S, Paswan AK, Kumar R, Kumawat N, Singh AK, Singh RS, Singh RK (2013) Effect of organic manures, bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers on growth, yield and economics of mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. &Coss.]. Bioinfolet 10(3A):834–838Google Scholar
  69. Kumar R, Chatterjee D, Kumawat N, Pandey A, Roy A, Kumar M (2014) Productivity, quality and soil health as influenced by lime in ricebean cultivars in foothills of northeastern India. Crop J 2:338–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kumar R, Deka BC, Kumar M, Ngachan SV (2015a) Productivity, quality and soil health as influenced by organic, inorganic and biofertilizer on field pea in Eastern Himalaya. J Plant Nutr 38:13–2006.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2014.988355 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kumar R, Kumar M, Kumar A, Pandey A (2015b) Productivity, profitability, nutrient uptake and soil health as influenced by establishment methods and nutrient management practices in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa) under hill ecosystem of North East India. Indian J Agric Sci 85(5):634–639Google Scholar
  72. Kumar M, Kumar R, Meena KL, Rajkhowa DJ, Kumar A (2016a) Productivity enhancement of rice through crop establishment techniques for livelihood improvement in Eastern Himalayas. Oryza 53(3):300–308Google Scholar
  73. Kumar R, Kumawat N, Kumar S, Kumar R, Kumar M, Sah RP, Kumar U, Kumar A (2016b) Direct seeded rice: research strategies and opportunities for water and weed management. Oryza 53(4):354–365Google Scholar
  74. Kumar R, Patra MK, Thirugnanavel A, Chatterjee D, Deka BC (2016c) Towards the natural resource management for resilient shifting cultivation system in Eastern Himalayas. In: Bisht J, Meena V, Mishra P, Pattanayak A (eds) Conservation agriculture. Springer, Singapore, pp 409–436. ISBN:978-981-10-2557-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kumar M, Rajkhowa J, Meena KL, Kumar R, Zeliang PK, Kikon EL, Rangnamei KL, Namei A (2017a) Effect of nutrient management in lowland rice for improving productivity, profitability and energetics under mid hill altitude of Nagaland. J AgriSearch 4(4):247–250Google Scholar
  76. Kumar S, Devi EL, Sharma SK, Ansari MA, Phurailatpam NTC, Singh TS, Prakash N, Kumar R, Kumawat N, Mandal D, Kumar A (2017b) Rice breeding strategies of North Eastern India for resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses: a review. ORYZA Int J Rice 54(1):1–12Google Scholar
  77. Kumar S, Dwivedi SK, Kumar R, Mishra JS, Singh SK, Prakash V, Rao KK, Bhatt BP (2017c) Productivity and energy use efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes under different tillage options in rainfed ecosystem of middle Indo-Gangetic Plains. Indian J Agron 62:1–31Google Scholar
  78. Kumar S, Kumar R, Mishra JS, Dwivedi SK, Prakash V, Bhakta N, Singh AK, Singh SK, Haris AA (2017d) Evaluation of rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars under different crop establishment methods to enhance productivity, profitability and energetics of rice in middle Indo-Gangetic Plains of Eastern India. Indian J Agron 62:3–307Google Scholar
  79. Kumar R, Mishra JS, Kumar R (2018a) Enhancing the productivity of rice fallows area of Eastern India through inclusion of pulses and oilseeds. Indian Farming, August Issue 68(08) (in press)Google Scholar
  80. Kumar S, Kumar R, Mishra JS, Dwivedi SK, Prakash V, Rao KK, Singh AK, Bhatt BP, Singh SS, Haris AA, Kumar V, Srivastava AK, Singh S, Yadav A (2018b) Productivity and profitability of rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes as influenced by crop management practices under middle Indo-Gangetic Plains. Indian J Agron 63(1):45–49Google Scholar
  81. Kumari A, Singh ON, Kumar R, Singh AK, Singh R (2010) Effect integrated nutrient management on yield and quality of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) vegetable. Science 2:149–152Google Scholar
  82. Kumari A, Singh ON, Kumar R (2012) Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth, seed yield and economics of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and soil fertility changes. J Food Legumes 25(2):121–124Google Scholar
  83. Kumari A, Sinha SP, Kumar R, Kumar A (2013) Effect of vermicompost, biofertilizer and inorganic fertilizers on yield and total nutrient uptake of field pea (Pisum sativum L.). J Appl Biol 23:1–4Google Scholar
  84. Kumari A, Singh ON, Kumar R (2014) Root growth, crop productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L.) as influenced by integrated nutrient management. Indian J Agric Sci 84(11):1347–1351Google Scholar
  85. Kumawat N, Kumar R, Sharma OP (2009a) Nutrient uptake and yield of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] as influenced by organic manures, PSB and phosphorus fertilization. Environ Ecol 27(4B):2002–2005Google Scholar
  86. Kumawat N, Sharma OP, Kumar R (2009b) Effect of organic manures, PSB and phosphorus fertilization on yield and economics of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Environ Ecol 27(1):5–7Google Scholar
  87. Kumawat N, Sharma OP, Kumar R, Kumari A (2009c) Response of organic manures, PSB and phosphorus fertilization on growth and yield of mungbean. Environ Ecol 27(4B):2024–2027Google Scholar
  88. Kumawat N, Sharma OP, Kumar R, Kumari A (2010) Yield and yield attributes of mungbean [Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek] as affected by organic manures, PSB and phosphorus fertilization. Environ Ecol 28(1A):332–335Google Scholar
  89. Kumawat N, Singh RP, Kumar R, Kumari A, Kumar P (2012) Response of intercropping and integrated nutrition on production potential and profitability on rainfed pigeonpea. J Agric Sci 4(7):154–162Google Scholar
  90. Kumawat N, Singh RP, Kumar R (2013a) Productivity, economics and water use efficiency of rainfed pigeonpea + black gram intercropping as influenced by integrated nutrient management. Indian J Soil Conserv 41(2):170–176Google Scholar
  91. Kumawat N, Singh RP, Kumar R, Om H (2013b) Effect of integrated nutrient management on the performance of sole and intercropped pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) under rainfed conditions. Indian J Agron 58(3):309–315Google Scholar
  92. Kumawat N, Singh RP, Kumar R, Yadav TP, Om H (2015) Effect integrated nutrient management on productivity, nutrient uptake and economics of rainfed pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and black gram (Vigna mungo) intercropping system. Indian J Agric Sci 85(2):171–176Google Scholar
  93. Kumawat N, Kumar R, Kumar S, Meena VS (2017a) Nutrient solubilizing microbes (NSMs): its role in sustainable crop production. In: Meena VS, Mishra P, Bisht J, Pattanayak A (eds) Agriculturally important microbes for sustainable agriculture. Springer, Singapore, pp 25–61.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5343-6_2. ISBN:978-981-10-5342-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kumawat N, Kumar R, Morya J, Tomar IS, Meena RS (2017b) Integrated nutrition management in pigeon pea intercropping systems for enhancing production and productivity in sustainable manner – a review. J Appl Nat Sc 9(4):2143–2151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kuotsuo R, Chatterjee D, Deka BC, Kumar R, AO M, Vikramjeet K (2014) Shifting cultivation: an ‘organic like’ farming in Nagaland. Indian J Hill Farming 27(2):23–28Google Scholar
  96. Kushwaha CP, Tripathi SK, Singh KP (2001) Soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates under different tillage and residue conditions in a tropical dryland agroecosystem. Appl Soil Ecol 16:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Küstermann B, Munch JC, Hülsbergen KJ (2013) Effects of soil tillage and fertilization on resource efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions in a long-term field experiment in Southern Germany. Eur J Agron 49:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kwabiah AB, Vorony RP, Palm CA, Stoskopf NC (1999) Inorganic fertilizer enrichment of soil: effect on decomposition of plant litter under sub humid tropical conditions. Biol Fertil Soils 30:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lal R (2007) Anthropogenic influences on world soils and implications for global food security. Adv Agron 93:69–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lal R (2018) Land use and soil management effects on soil organic carbon dynamics on Alfisols in Western Nigeria. In: Soil processes and the carbon cycle. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 123–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Linn D, Dorna JW (1984) Effect of water-filled pore space on carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide production in tilled and no tilled soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:1267–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Liu X, Herbert SJ, Hashemi AM, Zhang X, Ding G (2006) Effects of agricultural management on soil organic matter and carbon transformation – a review. Plant Soil Environ 52:531–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Liu C, Lu M, Cui J, Li B, Fang C (2014) Effects of straw carbon input on carbon dynamics in agricultural soils: a meta-analysis. Glob Chang Biol 20:1366–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lobe I, Amelung W, Du Preez CC (2001) Losses of carbon and nitrogen with prolonged arable cropping from sandy soils of the South African Highveld. Eur J Soil Sci 52:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lojkova L, Datta R, Sajna M, Marfo TD, Janous D, Pavelka M, Formanek P (2015) Limitation of proteolysis in soils of forests and other types of ecosystems by diffusion of substrate. In: Amino acids, 2015, vol 8. Springer, Wien, pp 1690–1691Google Scholar
  106. Lou Y, Liang W, Xu M, He X, Wang Y, Zhao K (2011) Straw coverage seasonal variability of the topsoil microbial biomass and activity. Catena 86(2):117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lutzow M, Leifeld J, Kainz M, Kogel-Knabner L, Munch JC (2002) Indications for soil organic matter quality in soils under different management. Geoderma 105:243–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ma J, Li XL, Xu H, Han Y, Cai ZC, Yagi K (2007) Effects of nitrogen fertiliser and wheat straw application on CH4 and N2O emissions from a paddy rice field. Aus J Soil Res 45:359–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ma J, Ma E, Xu H, Yagi K, Cai Z (2009) Wheat straw management affects CH4 and N2O emissions from rice fields. Soil Biol Biochem 5:1022–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mafongoya PL, Nair PKR, Dzowela BH (1998) Mineralization of nitrogen from decomposing leaves of multipurpose trees as affected by their chemical composition. Biol Fertil Soils 27:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Maiksteniene S, Arlauskiene A (2004) Effect of preceding crops and green manure on the fertility of clay loam soil. Agron Res 2:87–97Google Scholar
  112. Mandal KG, Misra AK, Hati KM, Bandyopadhyay KK, Ghosh PK, Mohanty M (2004) Rice residue-management options and effects on soil properties and crop productivity. J Food Agric Environ 2:224–231Google Scholar
  113. Manjaiah KM, Voroney RP, Seni U (2000) Soil organic carbon, storage profile and microbial biomass under different crop management systems in a tropical agricultural eco-system. Biol Fertil Soils 32:273–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Marfo TD, Datta R, Lojkova L, Janous D, Pavelka M, Formanek P (2015) Limitation of activity of acid phosphomonoesterase in soils. In: Amino acids, 2015, vol 8. Springer, Wien, pp 1691–1691Google Scholar
  115. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd edn. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  116. Marschner P, Umar S, Baumann K (2011) The microbial community composition changes rapidly in the early stages of decomposition of wheat residue. Soil Biol Biochem 43:445–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Marschner P, Hatam Z, Cavagnaro TR (2015) Soil respiration, microbial biomass and nutrient availability after the second amendment are influenced by legacy effects of prior residue addition. Soil Biol Biochem 88:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Martens DA (2000) Plant residue biochemistry regulates soil carbon cycling and carbon sequestration. Soil Biol Biochem 32:361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mary B, Recous S, Darwis D, Robin D (1996) Interactions between decomposition of plant residues and nitrogen cycling in soil. Plant Soil 181:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Meena RS, Mitran T, Kumar S, Yadav GS, Bohra JS, Datta R (2018) Application of remote sensing for sustainable agriculture and forest management. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  121. Memon MS, Guo J, Tagar AA, Perveen N, Ji C, Memon SA, Memon N (2018) The effects of tillage and straw incorporation on soil organic carbon status, rice crop productivity, and sustainability in the rice-wheat cropping system of Eastern China. Sustainability 10:961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Metzke M, Potthoff M, Quintern M, Hess J, Joergensen RG (2007) Effect of reduced tillage systems on earthworm communities in a 6-year organic rotation. Eur J Soil Biol 43:209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mishra JS, Kumar R (2017) Conservation tillage and weed management in smallholder agriculture: issues and opportunities. Curr Adv Agric Sci 9(2):186–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Molaei A, Lakzian A, Datta R, Haghnia G, Astaraei A, Rasouli-Sadaghiani M, Ceccherini MT (2017a) Impact of chlortetracycline and sulfapyridine antibiotics on soil enzyme activities. Int Agrophys 31(4):499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Molaei A, Lakzian A, Haghnia G, Astaraei A, Rasouli-Sadaghiani M, Ceccherini MT, Datta R (2017b) Assessment of some cultural experimental methods to study the effects of antibiotics on microbial activities in a soil: an incubation study. PLoS One 12(7):e0180663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Motavalli PP, Palm CA, Parton WJ, Elliott ET, Frey SD (1995) Soil pH and organic C dynamics in tropical forest soils: evidence from laboratory and simulation studies. Soil Biol Biochem 27:1589–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Murungu FS, Chiduza C, Muchaonyerwa P, Joergensen RG (2011) Decomposition, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization from residues of summer-grown cover crops and suitability for a smallholder farming system. S Afr Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 42:2461–2472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Narang RS, Virmani SM (2001) Rice-wheat cropping systems of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India (No. REP-8944CIMMYT)Google Scholar
  129. Narayan D, Lal B (2006) Effect of green manuring on soil properties and yield of wheat under different soil depths in Alfisols under semi-arid conditions in Central India. Bull Nat Inst Ecol 17:31–36Google Scholar
  130. Naresh RK, Panwar AS, Dhaliwal SS, Gupta RK, Kumar A, Rathore RS, Kumar A, Kumar D, Lal M, Kumar S, Tyagi S (2017) Effect of organic inputs on strength and stability of soil aggregates associated organic carbon concentration under rice-wheat rotation in Indo-Gangetic Plain zone of India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 6:1973–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Naresh RK, Bhaskar S, Dhaliwal SS, Kumar A, Gupta RK, Vivek R, Vivek R (2018) Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization dynamics following incorporation and surface application of rice and wheat residues in a semi-arid area of North West India: a review. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 7:248–259Google Scholar
  132. Nelson PN, Ladd LN, Oades JM (1996) Decomposition of He labelled plant material in a salt-affected soil. Soil BioI Biochem 28:433–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Neupane MP, Singh RK, Kumar R, Kumari A (2011) Yield performance of baby corn (Zea mays L.) as influenced by nitrogen sources and row spacing. Environ Ecol 29(3):1180–1183Google Scholar
  134. Nieder R, Benbi DK (2008) Carbon and nitrogen in the terrestrial environment. Springer, Heidelberg, p 430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. O’Connell AM, Grove TS, Mendham D, Rance SJ (2000) O’Connell AM, Grove TS, Mendham D Rance SJ. In: Nambiar EKS, Tiarks A, Cossalter C Ranger J (eds) Site management and productivity in tropical plantation forest. CIFOR, Bogor, pp 61–71Google Scholar
  136. Oades JM (1993) The role of biology in the formation, stabilization and degradation of soil structure. Structure 56:377–400Google Scholar
  137. Ogbodo EN (2011) Effect of crop residue on soil chemical properties and rice yield on an Ultisol at Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. World J Agric Sci 7:13–18Google Scholar
  138. Ortega RA, Peterson GA, Westfall DG (2002) Residue accumulation and changes in soil organic matter as affected by cropping system intensity in no-till dry land agro ecosystems. Agron J 94:944–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Oshins C, Drinkwater L (1999) An introduction to soil health. [A slide set available at the Northeast Region SARE website: www.uvm.edu/~nesare/slide.html]
  140. Pal V, Singh MM, Kumar R, Verma SS (2013) Response of irrigation scheduling and integrated nutrition on scented rice (Oryza sativa L.). Bioinfolet 10(4C):1528–1530Google Scholar
  141. Palm CA, Gachengo CN, Delve RJ, Cadisch G, Giller KE (2001) Organic inputs for soil fertility management in tropical agroecosystems: application of an organic resource database. Agric Ecosyst Environ 83:27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Panachuki E, Bertol I, Alves Sobrinho T, Sanches de Oliveira PT, Bicca Rodrigues DBB (2011) Soil and water loss and water infiltration in red latosol under different management systems. Rev Bras Cienc Solo 35:1777–1785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Pare T, Gregorich EG (1999) Soil texture effects on mineralization of nitrogen from crop residues and the added nitrogen interaction. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 30:145–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Parsons WFJ, Taylor BR, Parkinson D (1990) Decomposition of aspen (Populus tremuloides) leaf litter modified by leaching. Can J For Res 20:943–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pathak H, Bhatia A, Jain N, Aggarwal PK (2010) Greenhouse gas emission and mitigation in Indian agriculture–a review. ING Bull Reg Assess React Nitrogen 19:1–34Google Scholar
  146. Prasad R, Power JF (1991) Crop residue management. Adv Soil Sci 15:205–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Probert ME, Delve RJ, Kimani SK, Dimes JP (2005) Modelling nitrogen mineralization from manures: representing quality aspects by varying C: N ratio of sub pools. Soil Biol Biochem 37:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Purnomo E, Black AS, Smith CJ, Conyers MK (2000) The distribution of net nitrogen mineralization with in surface soil. I. Field studies under a wheat crop. Aust J Soil Res 38:129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Qualls RG, Richardson CJ (2000) Phosphorus enrichment affects litter decomposition, immobilization, and soil microbial phosphorus in wetland mesocosms. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:799–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Raiesi F (1998) Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on litter quality, litter decomposability and nitrogen turnover rate of two oak species in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Glob Chang Biol 4:667–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Raimbault BA, Vyn TJ (1991) Crop rotation and tillage effects on corn growth and soil structural stability. Agron J 83:979–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Raison RJ, O’Connell AM, Khanna PK, Keith H (1993) Effect of repeated fires on nitrogen and phosphorus budgets and cycling processes in forest ecosystems. In: Trabaud L, Prodon R (eds) Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems. CEC, Brussels, pp 347–363Google Scholar
  153. Ranells NN, Wagger MG (1992) Nitrogen release from crimson clover in relation to plant growth stage and composition. Agron J 84:424–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Recous S, Robin D, Darwis D, Mary B (1995) Soil inorganic N availability: effect on maize residue decomposition. Soil Biol Biochem 12:1529–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Reddy BVS, Reddy PS, Bidinger F, Blümmel M (2003) Crop management factors influencing yield and quality of crop residues. Field Crop Res 84(1–2):57–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Reicosky DC, Dugas W, Torbert H (1997) Tillage-induced soil carbon dioxide loss from different cropping systems. Soil Tillage Res 41:105–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Ruan L, Philip Robertson G (2013) Initial nitrous oxide carbon dioxide, and methane costs of converting conservation reserve program grassland to row crops under no-till vs. conventional tillage. Glob Chang Biol 19:2478–2489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rusinamhodzi L, Corbeels M, van Wijk MT, Rufino MC, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2011) A meta-analysis of long-term effects of conservation agriculture on maize grain yield under rain-fed conditions. Agron Sustain Dev 31:657–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Saggar S, Parshotam A, Hedley C, Salt G (1999) 14C-labelled glucose turnover in New Zealand soils. Soil Boil Biochem 31:2025–2037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Salinas-Garcia JR, Baez-Gonzalez AD, Tiscareno-Lopez M, Rosales-Robles E (2001) Residue removal and tillage interaction effects on soil properties under rain-fed corn production in central Mexico. Soil Tillage Res 59:67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sall S, Bertrand J, Chotte JL, Recous S (2007) Separate effects of the biochemical quality and N content of crop residues on C and N dynamics in soil. Biol Fertil Soil 43:797–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Samal SK, Rao KK, Poonia SP, Kumar R, Mishra JS, Prakash V, Mondal S, Dwivedi SK, Bhatt BP, Naik SK, Choubey AK, Kumar V, Malik RK, Mc DA (2017) Evaluation of long-term conservation agriculture and crop intensification in rice-wheat rotation of Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia: carbon dynamics and productivity. Eur J Agron 90:198–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Samra JS, Singh B, Kumar K (2003) Managing crop residues in the rice–wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In: Improving the productivity and sustainability of rice–wheat systems: issues and impacts, (improving the pro). American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Charlotte, pp 173–195Google Scholar
  164. Sarkar A, Yadav RL, Gangwar B, Bhatia PC (1999) Crop residues in India. Tech Bull Project Directorate for Cropping System. Research, Modipuram, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  165. Sayre KD (2004) Raised-bed cultivation. In: Lal R (ed) Encyclopedia of soil science. Marcel Dekker Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  166. Scheller E, Joergensen GR (2008) Decomposition of wheat straw differing in nitrogen content in soils under conventional and organic farming management. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 171:886–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Seastedt T (1984) The role of microarthropods in decomposition and mineralization processes. Annu Rev Entomol 29:25–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Seneviratne G (2000) Litter quality and nitrogen release in tropical agriculture: synthesis. Biol Fertil Soils 31:60–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Shahbaz M, Kuzyakov Y, Heitkamp F (2017) Decrease of soil organic matter stabilization with increasing inputs: mechanisms and controls. Geoderma 304:76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Shamina IP, Vetrovsky T, Giagnoni L, Datta R, Baldrian P, Nannipieri P, Renella G (2018) Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of two maize lines differing in N use efficiency. Plant Soil 433:401–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sharratt BS, Campbell GS (1994) Radiation balance of a soil-straw surface modified by straw color. Agron J 86:200–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Shindo H, Nishio T (2005) Immobilization and remineralization of N following addition of wheat straw into soil: determination of gross N transformation rates by 15N-ammonium isotope dilution technique. Soil Biol Biochem 37:425–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Shivran RK, Rokadia P, Kumar R (2012) Phosphorus and sulphur nutrition with P-solublizing bacterial inoculation enhanced the quality and yield of soybean (Cultivar JS-335). Madras Agric J 99(1–3):68–72Google Scholar
  174. Shivran RK, Kumar R, Kumari A (2013) Influence of sulphur, phosphorus and farm yard manure on yield attributes and productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) in humid south eastern plains of Rajasthan. Agric Sci Dig 1:9–14Google Scholar
  175. Sidhu BS, Beri V (2005) Experience with managing rice residues in intensive rice-wheat cropping system in Punjab. In: Conservation agriculture: status and prospects. Centre for Advancement of Sustainable Agriculture, New Delhi, pp 55–63Google Scholar
  176. Sidhu HS, Manpreet-Singh, Humphreys E, Yadvinder-Singh, Balwinder-Singh, Dhillon SS, Blackwell J, Bector V, Malkeet-Singh, Sarbjeet-Singh (2007) The happy seeder enables direct drilling of wheat into rice stubble. Aus J Exp Agric 47:844–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Singh B, Singh Y (2003) Management of crop residues. In: Rice-wheat cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Indian Council of Agricultural Research/Punjab Agricultural University, New Delhi/Ludhiana, pp 286–301Google Scholar
  178. Singh AK, Singh AK, Choudhary AK, Kumari A, Kumar R (2017a) Towards oilseeds sufficiency in India: present status and way forward. J AgriSearch 4(2):80–84Google Scholar
  179. Singh AK, Singh AK, Kumar R, Prakash V, Sundaram PK, Yadav SK (2017b) Indian cereals saga: standpoint and way forward. J AgriSearch 4(1):1–9Google Scholar
  180. Singh SK, Abraham T, Kumar R, Kumar R (2017c) Response of crop establishment methods and split application of nitrogen on productivity of rice under irrigated ecosystem. Environ Ecol 35(2A):859–862Google Scholar
  181. Skjemstad JO, Janik LJ, Head MJ, McClure SG (1993) High energy ultraviolet photo-oxidation: a novel technique for studying physically protected organic matter in clay and silt-sized aggregates. J Soil Sci 44:485–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Smethurst PJ, Nambiar EKS (1990) Effects of slash and litter management on fluxes of N and tree growth in a young P. radiate plantation. Can J For Res 20:1498–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Sodhi GPS, Beri V, Benbi DK (2009) Soil aggregation and distribution of carbon and nitrogen in different fractions under long-term application of compost in rice–wheat system. Soil Tillage Res 2:412–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Subehia SK, Sepehya S (2012) Influence of long-term nitrogen substitution through organics on yield, uptake and available nutrients in a rice-wheat system in an acidic soil. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 60:213–217Google Scholar
  185. Tanaka DL (1986) Wheat residue loss for chemical and stubble-mulched fallow. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:434–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Tandon HLS, Sekhon GS (1988) Potassium research and agricultural production. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  187. Thierfelder C, Wall PC (2009) Effects of conservation agriculture techniques on infiltration and soil water content in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Soil Tillage Res 105:217–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Tian G, Brussaard L, Kang BT (1995a) Breakdown of plant residues with contrasting chemical compositions under humid tropical conditions: effects of earthworms and millipedes. Soil Biol Biochem 27:277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tian G, Brussaard L, Kang BT (1995b) An index for assessing the quality of plant residues and evaluating their effects on soil and crop in the (sub-) humid tropics. Appl Soil Ecol 2:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Trinsoutrot J, Rccous S, Bentz B, Lincres M, Chenoby D, Nicolardot B (2000) Biochemical quality of crop residues and carbon and nitrogen mineralization kinetics under nonlimiting nitrogen conditions. Soil Sci Am J 64:918–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Usuki K, Yamamoto H, Tazawa J (2007) Effects of previous cropping and tillage system on growth of maize and symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in central region of Japan. Jpn J Crop Sci 76:394–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Verhulst N, Govaerts B, Verachtert E, Mezzalama M, Wall PC, Chocobar A, Deckers J, Sayre KD (2010) Conservation agriculture, improving soil quality for sustainable production systems? In: Lal R, Stewart BA (eds) Advances in soil science: food security and soil quality. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 137–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Verhulst N, Carrillo-Garcia A, Moeller C, Trethowan R, Sayre KD, Govaerts B (2011a) Conservation agriculture for wheat-based cropping systems under gravity irrigation: increasing resilience through improved soil quality. Plant Soil 340:467–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Verhulst N, Nelissen V, Jespers N, Haven H, Sayre KD, Raes D, Deckers J, Govaerts B (2011b) Soil water content, maize yield and its stability as affected by tillage and crop residue management in rainfed semi-arid highlands. Plant Soil 124:347–356Google Scholar
  195. Vigil MF, Sparks D (2004) Factors affecting the rate of crop residue decomposition under field conditions. Conservation tillage Fact Sheet# 3–95. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  196. Wang J, Liu X, Zhang F (2002) The effect of different soil mulch materials on the growth and yield of rice. Acta Ecol Sin 22:922–929Google Scholar
  197. Wang WJ, Baldock JA, Dalal RC, Moody PW (2004) Decomposition dynamics of plant materials in relation to nitrogen availability and biochemistry determined by NMR and wet-chemical analysis. Soil Biol Biochem 36:2045–2058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Whalen JK, Parmelee R, Subler S (2000) Quantification of nitrogen excretion rates for three lumbricid earthworms using 15N. Biol Fertil Soils 32:347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Whitbread A, Blair G, Konboon Y, Lefroy R, Naklang K (2003) Managing crop residues, fertilizers and leaf litters to improve soil C, nutrient balances, and the grain yield of rice and wheat cropping systems in Thailand and Australia. Agric Ecosyst Environ 100:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Wood WA, Kellogg ST (1988) Miomass. Part A: Cellulose and hemicellulose. In: Abelson JN, Simon MI (eds) Methods in enzymology, vol 160160. Academic, San Diego, pp 3–774Google Scholar
  201. Wright S, Starr J, Paltineanu I (1999) Changes in aggregate stability and concentration of glomalin during tillage management transition. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:1825–1829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Wuest S, Caesar-TonThat T, Wright SF, Williams J (2005) Organic matter addition, N, and residue burning effects on infiltration, biological, and physical properties of an intensively tilled silt-loam soil. Soil Tillage Res 84:154–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Xu RK, Coventry DR (2003) Soil pH changes associated with lupin and wheat plant materials incorporated in a red-brown earth soil. Plant Soil 250:113–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Yadav GS, Datta R, Imran Pathan S, Lal R, Meena RS, Babu S, Das A, Bhowmik S, Datta M, Saha P (2017) Effects of conservation tillage and nutrient management practices on soil fertility and productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.)–rice system in north eastern region of India. Sustainability 9(10):1816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Yadvinder-Singh, Gupta RK, Singh J, Singh G, Singh G, Ladha JK (2010) Placement effects on rice residue decomposition and nutrient dynamics on two soil types during wheat cropping in rice–wheat system in northwestern India. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 88:471–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Yan X, Yagi K, Akiyama H, Akimoto H (2005) Statistical analysis of the major variables controlling methane emission from rice fields. Glob Chang Biol 11:1131–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Yang HS, Yang B, Dai YJ, Xu MM, Koide RT, Wang XH, Liu J, Bian XM (2015) Soil nitrogen retention is increased by ditch-buried straw return in a rice–wheat rotation system. Eur J Agron 69:52–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Zhang F (2011) The effects of no-tillage practice on soil physical properties. Afr J Biotechnol 10:17645–17650Google Scholar
  209. Zhao S, Li K, Zhou W (2016) Changes in soil microbial community, enzyme activities and organic matter fractions under long-term Straw return in north-central China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 216:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Zhu L, Sun QF, Liu CX, Wang XH, Bian XM (2012) Effects of burial of rice straw in furrows on soil environment of wheat field. J Ecol Rural Environ 28:399–403Google Scholar
  211. Zibilske LM, Bradford JM, Smart JR (2002) Conservation tillage induced changes in organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus in a semi-arid alkaline subtropical soil. Soil Tillage Res 66:153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Zou JW, Huang Y, Jiang JY, Zheng XH, Sass RL (2005) A 3-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies in China: effects of water regime, crop residue, and fertilizer application. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 19:2021CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirti Saurabh
    • 1
  • Rakesh Kumar
    • 1
  • J. S. Mishra
    • 1
  • Hansraj Hans
    • 1
  • Narendra Kumawat
    • 2
  • Ram Swaroop Meena
    • 3
  • K. K. Rao
    • 1
  • Manoj Kumar
    • 1
  • A. K. Dubey
    • 1
  • M. L. Dotaniya
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Crop ResearchICAR Research Complex for Eastern RegionPatnaIndia
  2. 2.AICRP on Management of Salt Affected Soils and Use of Saline Water in Agriculture, College of AgricultureIndoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of AgronomyInstitute of Agricultural Sciences (BHU)VaranasiIndia
  4. 4.ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil ScienceBhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations