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Biomaterials and Its Medical Applications

  • Saili Dharadhar
  • Anuradha MajumdarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The human body undergoes wear and tear with age, and it is subjected to various diseases and disorders throughout the lifespan. Sometimes, administration of medical agents does not suffice for complete recovery from the ailments. External agents or materials are required to support the normal functioning of the body. The materials that are engineered to interact with biological systems for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of diseases and ailments are known as biomaterials. Any resource to be engineered and used as a biomaterial must possess the qualities of biocompatibility, inertness, mechanical stability, and ease of fabrication. The site and application of the biomaterial may demand specific properties. Biomaterials for dental and orthopedic applications should possess substantial mechanical strength and prolonged rates of biodegradation, while those for visceral organ and dermal applications must be flexible with faster rates of degradation. Biomaterials may be of natural or synthetic origin. The chapter discusses various applications of biomaterials in the medical and pharmaceutical industry. It highlights the types of biomaterials and discusses their properties specific to each application.

Keywords

Biomaterials Medical applications Biocompatibility Implants 

Abbreviations

3D

three-dimensional

Al2O3

aluminum oxide

ALCL

anaplastic large cell lymphoma

BMS

bare-metal stents

CaP

calcium phosphate

CB

cardiovascular biomaterials

DES

drug-eluting stent

ECM

extracellular matrix

e-PTFE

elongated-PTFE

IL

interleukin

IOLs

intraocular lenses

HA

hydroxyapatite

NSS

nitrogenated stainless steel

PE

polyethylene

PEG

polyethylene glycol

PET

polyethylene terephthalate

PGA

polyglycolic acid

PLA

polylactic acid

PLGA

poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide)

PLGA-Fn

PLGA immersed in fibronectin

PLLA

poly-L-lactic acids

PLLA-Fn

PLLA immersed in fibronectin

P (LL-co-CL)

poly-D,L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone

PMMA

polymethyl methacrylate

PP

polypropylene

PTFE

polytetrafluoroethylene

PVDF

polyvinylidene fluoride

T/L

tendons and ligaments

TJR

total joint replacement

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

ZrO2

zirconia

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Novartis Healthcare Pvt. Ltd.HyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyBombay College of PharmacyMumbaiIndia

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