Advertisement

Overview of the Internal Physiological System of the Human Body

  • Karabi Ganguly
Chapter

Abstract

Human physiology is described as the science of life as it correlates the study of the structure-function relation of all organs in in vivo system. Human physiology is the domain which states about the working of human system. It describes the biochemical and biophysical mechanisms from the molecular level including the cellular activity related to the behaviour of whole body. Physiology deals with the frameworks, the organs of the human body and their capacities to support the overall life processes within the body. Numerous frameworks and systems composed of several concerned organs perform a specific end task and bring about the homeostasis in a healthy living system. This chapter enriches us about the interrelated well-knitted cell-tissue-organ-system-organism functions individually to integrate all the systems to reflect ultimate vital activities of the human body.

Keywords

Cardiovascular system Blood-vascular system Digestive system Respiratory system Renal system Musculoskeletal system Nervous system 

References

  1. 1.
    Hartenstein V, Mandal L (2006) The blood/vascular system in a phylogenetic perspective. BioEssays 28:1203–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jacob M, Chappell D, Becker BF (2016) Regulation of blood flow and volume exchange across the microcirculation. Crit Care 20(1):319.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-016-1485-0CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Monahan-Earley R, Dvorak AM, Aird WC (2013) Evolutionary origins of the blood vascular system and endothelium. J Thromb Haemost 11:46–66.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jth.12253CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson RH, Webb S, Brown NA (1999) Clinical anatomy of the atrial septum with reference to its developmental components. Clin Anat 12:362–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Keith A (1918) Harveian lecture on the functional anatomy of the heart. Br Med J 1:361–363.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2987.361CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gross L, Kugel MA (1931) Topographic anatomy and histology of the valves in the human heart. Am J Pathol 7(5):445–474.7PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Borgstrom B, Dahlqvist A, Lundh G, Sjovall J (1957 Oct) Studies of intestinal digestion and absorption in the human. J Clin Invest 36(10):1521–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Granger DN, Kvietys PR, Perry MA (1982 June) Role of exchange vessels in the regulation of intestinal oxygenation. 22. Am J Phys 242(6):G570–G574Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elsom KA, Chornock FW, Dickey FG (1942 Nov) Intubation studies of the human small intestine. Xxiii. A method of determining digestive activity in any portion of the gastro-intestinal tract, with some measurements of protein digestion in the stomach and small intestine. J Clin Invest 21(6):795–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Adibi SA (1969 May) The influence of molecular structure of neutral amino acids on their absorption kinetics in the jejunum and ileum of human intestine in vivo. Gastroenterology 56(5):903–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wright GW (1961) Structure and function of respiratory tract in relation to infection. Bacteriol Rev 25(3):219–227PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ballenger JJ (1960) Experimental effect of cigarette smoke on human respiratory cilia. N Engl J Med 263:832–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mora-Fernández C, Domínguez-Pimentel V, de Fuentes MM, Górriz JL, Martínez-Castelao A, Navarro-González JF (2014) Diabetic kidney disease: from physiology to therapeutics. J Physiol 592:3997–4012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elbadawi A (1996) Functional anatomy of the organs of micturition. Urol Clin North Am 23:177–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dantzler WH, Layton AT, Layton HE, Pannabecker TL (2013) Urine-concentrating mechanism in the inner medulla: function of the thin limbs of the loops of Henle. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 9(10):1781–1789.  https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.08750812CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Taylor KA, Robertson JD (1984) Analysis of the three-dimensional structure of the urinary bladder epithelial cell membranes. J Ultrastruct Res 87:23–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lexell J, Henriksson-Larsén K, Winblad B, Sjöström M (1983) Distribution of different fiber types in human skeletal muscles: effects of aging studied in whole muscle cross sections. Muscle Nerve 6:588–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown SHM, Ward SR, Cook MS, Lieber RL (2011) Architectural analysis of human abdominal wall muscles: implications for mechanical function. Spine 36:355–362PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kuo AD, Zajac FE (1993) Human standing posture: Multi-joint movement strategies based on biomechanical constraints. Prog Brain Res 97:349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murphy AC, Muldoon SF, Baker D, Lastowka A, Bennett B, Yang M, Bassett DS (2018) Structure, function, and control of the human musculoskeletal network. PLoS Biol 16:e2002811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Langen UH, Pitulescu ME, Kim JM, Enriquez-Gasca R, Sivaraj KK, Kusumbe AP, Singh A, Di Russo J, Bixel MG, Zhou B, Sorokin L, Vaquerizas JM, Adams RH (2017) Cell-matrix signals specify bone endothelial cells during developmental osteogenesis. Nat Cell Biol 19:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sommer JR, Waugh RA (1976) The ultrastructure of the mammalian cardiac muscle cell – with special emphasis on the tubular membrane systems. A review. Am J Pathol 82(1):192–232PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnson EA, Sommer JR (1967 Apr) A strand of cardiac muscle. Its ultrastructure and the electrophysiological implications of its geometry. J Cell Biol 33(1):103–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Buller AJ, Kean CJ, Ranatunga KW, Smith JM (1984) Temperature dependence of isometric contractions of cat fast and slow skeletal muscles. J Physiol 355:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Edwards RH, Harris RC, Hultman E, Kaijser L, Koh D, Nordesjö LO (1972) Effect of temperature on muscle energy metabolism and endurance during successive isometric contractions, sustained to fatigue, of the quadriceps muscle in man. J Physiol 220(2):335–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Merton PA (1954) Voluntary strength and fatigue. J Physiol 123(3):553–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shadrin IY, Khodabukus A, Bursac N (2016) Striated muscle function, regeneration, and repair. Cell Mol Life Sci 73(22):4175–4202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-016-2285-zCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hallett M, Rothwell J (2011) Milestones in clinical neurophysiology. Mov Disord 26(6):958–967.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.23572CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kress GJ, Mennerick S (2008) Action potential initiation and propagation: upstream influences on neurotransmission. Neuroscience 158(1):211–222.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.03.021CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL et al (2000) Molecular cell biology, 4th edn. W. H. Freeman, New York. Section 21.1, Overview of Neuron Structure and Function. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21535/Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Neishabouri A, Faisal AA (2014) Saltatory conduction in unmyelinated axons: clustering of Na(+) channels on lipid rafts enables micro-saltatory conduction in C-fibers. Front Neuroanat 8:109.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2014.00109CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eames RA, Gamble HJ (1970 May) Schwann cell relationships in normal human cutaneous nerves. J Anat 106(Pt 3):417–435PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Messé A, Rudrauf D, Benali H, Marrelec G (2014) Relating structure and function in the human brain: relative contributions of anatomy, stationary dynamics, and non-stationarities. PLoS Comput Biol 10(3):e1003530.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003530CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cerf M, Thiruvengadam N, Mormann F et al (2010) On-line, voluntary control of human temporal lobe neurons. Nature 467(7319):1104–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09510CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brown AG (1981) Organization in the spinal cord. The anatomy and physiology of identified neurons. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schoenen J (1982a) The dendritic organization of the human spinal cord: the dorsal horn. Neuroscience 7:2057–2087CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karabi Ganguly
    • 1
  1. 1.JIS College of EngineeringKalyaniIndia

Personalised recommendations