Flowers are organized into four concentric whorls of organs, namely, sepals, petals, stamens and carpels. Stamens are the sporophytic organ system with male sporogenous (diploid) cells which undergo meiosis and produce haploid male spores or microspores or pollen grains. Stamen consists of anther and the filament, and the filament is a vascular tissue that supplies water and nutrients to the anther. The production of pollen grains involves an array of extraordinary events that are independent of a conventional meristem, with a transition from sporophytic to gametophytic generation. In addition, production of coenocytic tissues (the tapetum and the microsporocyte mass) is part of pollen development. Subsequently, pollen grains that are self-contained units for genome dispersal are made.
KeywordsMale sterility Genetic male sterility Cytoplasmic male sterility Genes for CMS and restoration of fertility (cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility) Mechanisms of restoration Engineering male sterility Dominant nuclear male sterility (pollen abortion or barnase/barstar system) Male sterility through hormonal engineering Pollen self-destructive engineered male sterility Male sterility using pathogenesis-related protein genes RNAi and male sterility Mitochondrial rearrangements for CMS mtDNA recombination and cyto-nuclear interaction Regulation of CMS transcripts via RNA editing Accumulation of toxic protein products Chloroplast genome engineering for CMS Male sterility in plant breeding Male sterility and hybrid seed production
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