• P. M. Priyadarshan


There are many definitions for heterosis: Heterosis or hybrid vigour is the superiority of a hybrid offspring over the average of both its genetically distinct parents; hybrid vigour is the increased vigour or other superior qualities arising from the crossbreeding of genetically different plants; heterosis is superiority of F1 in one or more characters over its better parental or mid-parental value; heterosis is that progeny of diverse varieties exhibit greater biomass, speed of development and fertility than both parents; heterosis is the phenomenon observed when the F1 progeny of a cross exhibit improved or transgressive values traits over their parents.


Historical aspects Dominance hypothesis Over-dominance hypothesis Heterosis and epistasis Epigenetic component to heterosis Physiological basis Molecular basis Inbreeding depression Prediction of heterosis Phenotypic data-based prediction of heterosis Molecular marker-based prediction of heterosis Achievements by heterosis Heterosis breeding in wheat, rice and maize 

Further Reading

  1. Birchler JA et al (2010) Heterosis. Plant Cell 22:2105–2112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Birchler JA (2015) Heterosis: the genetic basis of hybrid vigour. Nat Plants 1:15020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fu D et al (2015) What is crop heterosis: new insights into an old topic. J Appl Genetics 56:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Herbst RH et al (2017) Heterosis as a consequence of regulatory incompatibility. BMC Biol 15:38. Scholar
  5. Huang X et al (2016) Genomic architecture of heterosis for yield traits in rice. Nature 537:629–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lauss K et al (2018) Parental DNA methylation states are associated with heterosis in epigenetic hybrids. Plant Physiol 176:1627–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Xing J et al (2016) Proteomic patterns associated with heterosis. Biochim Biophys Acta (BBA) – Proteins Proteomics 1864:908–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Priyadarshan
    • 1
  1. 1.Erstwhile Deputy DirectorRubber Research Institute of IndiaKottayamIndia

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