Landscape of Sewerage and Septage Set-up in Puri, Odisha
Background: Faecal sludge management is the process of safe collection, conveyance, treatment and disposal of sludge from on-site sanitation system. The goal of the proposed study was to undertake an in-depth assessment of the on-site sanitation system and practice with focus on faecal sludge and septage management in Puri town. Methods: All households, institutions and commercial establishments were surveyed and geo-tagged (100%). On-site sanitation systems and practices of 44,739 households, 529 institutions, 1215 commercial establishments and 158 mixed establishments; reasons for not connecting their latrine/toilets to the existing sewerage system information were collected using computer based structured tool. Findings: Out of 44,739 households; 39,218 households have toilets/latrines and remaining 5,521 households did not have toilets/latrines. Out of 39,218 households, only 16,530 household toilets are connected to septic tanks; 15,036 households have pit latrines; 3098 households did not construct any containment system for faecal matter and connected their toilets direct to drain; 4515 households connected their toilets to sewer network and the remaining 39 households have toilets but did not have containment system and discharge in open space or surrounding environment. The survey revealed that out of 5,521 households who did not have their own toilet, 4406 were practising open defecation and the remaining used community/public/shared toilets. About 61% of the septic tanks/pit latrines were never cleaned. Only 2862 households (6.4%) used cesspool vehicle for cleaning and 9327 households (20.8%) cleaned their septic tank/pit latrines in non-mechanised method. Primarily, location of the toilets with respect to the sewer lines—about 60% septic tanks/pits are located at the backside while sewer lines are in the front of the properties. Road accessibility of the cesspool vehicles to septic tanks/pits are the major challenges for faecal sludge management. About one-fifth of the city roads are narrow—less than 2.5 m, which creates hindrance for the accessibility to the cesspool trucks to the septic tanks/pits. Despite, more than 90% of the households were aware about sewer system in the town and the availability of an incentive of INR 6,667 from the Government for sewer connection, the rate of sewer connection did not increasing due to inconvenience of digging/cutting of roads and making physical connection and excavation within the house premises and repair to the floor of the houses. Conclusion: Integration between the sewerage system and the on-site sanitation system shall be a critical step along with mainstreaming the sanitary workers and empowering them with appropriate mechanised tools for cleaning and transportation of faecal sludge and septage.
KeywordsSewerage Cesspool operation On-site sanitation Odisha Septage
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