Advertisement

Preliminary Comparison Among Recycling Rates for Developed and Developing Countries: The Case of India, Israel, Italy and USA

  • Francesco Di MariaEmail author
  • Ronald L. Mersky
  • Shira Daskal
  • Ofira Ayalon
  • Sadhan K. Ghosh
Conference paper

Abstract

This paper examines the recycling rates for waste management systems implemented in different countries: India, Israel, Italy and USA. Recycling rates range from a minimum of about 20% for Israel up to about 44% for Italy. Indian recycling rates are affected by a large informal sector providing waste reuse and recycling at source (about 15%) and at waste collection sites (15%), even as >30% of produced waste is not collected. A high level of uncontrolled dumping up to 70% was found for India. Substantial differences were found in the legal and legislative frameworks for waste management. Absence of clear definitions and classifications of waste was detected for India and Israel leading to inconsistent data concerning the amount and composition of waste generated. With the exception of Italy, in all the other countries a lack of a fully implemented political, legal and economic scheme for supporting efficient management in the waste sector was detected.

Keywords

Developed countries Developing countries Recycling rates Waste management 

References

  1. Ashur, N. (2012). Policy document for producing energy from waste, submitted to the MoEP (in Hebrew).Google Scholar
  2. Broitman, D., Ayalon, O., & Kan, I. (2012). One size fits all? An assessment tool for solid waste management at local and national levels. Waste Management, 32, 1979–1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. CBS. (2016). Solid waste collected in local authorities by municipal status and type of treatment. Available at: http://www.cbs.gov.il/reader/?MIval=cw_usr_view_SHTML&ID=524.
  4. CPCB. (2016). Available at: http://cpcb.nic.in/. Accessed 25.03.2019.
  5. EPA. (2017). EPA history: Resource conservation and recovery act. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/history/epa-history-resource-conservation-and-recovery-act. Accessed 02.08.2017.
  6. IPPC. (2008). Directive 2008/1/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 January 2008 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control. Official Journal of European Union 29.1.2008 L 24/8.Google Scholar
  7. ISPRA. (2016). Rapporto Rifiuti Urbani. Edizione 2016. ISPRA, Rapporti 251/2016. ISBN 978-88-448-0791-7.Google Scholar
  8. Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Available at: https://www.cbs.gov.il/EN/pages/default.aspx. Accessed 25.03.2019.
  9. Lavee, D., Regev, U., & Zemrl, A. (2007). The effect of recycling price uncertainty on municipal waste management choices. Journal of Environment Management, 90, 3599–3606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. LFD (Landfill Directive). (1999). Landfill Directive 99/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on landfill, 1999. Official Journal of the European Union 16.7.1999, L182/1.Google Scholar
  11. Lyubarskaya, M., & Mersky, R. L. (2013). Comparative Analysis of Contemporary, Russian and American Solid Waste Management Practices, White Paper of U.S. Russia Foundation for Economic Advancement and the Rule of Law (also presented at Saint Petersburg State Economical University, Department of Municipal Economy and Management, October 23, 2013).Google Scholar
  12. Marshall, R. E., & Farahbakhsh, K. (2013). Systems approach to integrated solid waste management in developing countries. Waste Management, 33, 988–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. MoEP. (2011). Packaging treatment law-2011 (in Hebrew). Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/subjectsenv/waste/beverage/documents/containers%20law.pdf.
  14. MoEP. (2014). Wastewater. Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/English/env_topics/Wastewater/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 22.08.2018.
  15. MoEP. (2016). State budget proposal for fiscal years 2017 and 2018. Available at: https://mof.gov.il/en/PolicyAndBudget/Documents/StateBudgetProposal_2017-2018.pdf. Accessed 25.03.2019.
  16. MoEP. (2017a). Ministry of environmental protection policy on waste disposal (in Hebrew). Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/English/env_topics/Solid_Waste/FactsAndFigures/Pages/default.aspx.
  17. MoEP. (2017b). Waste data in Israel (in Hebrew). Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/subjectsEnv/Waste/Laws/Pages/Landfill-Levy.aspx.
  18. MoEP. (2017c). Waste: Facts and figures. Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/subjectsEnv/Waste/Laws/Pages/Landfill-Levy.aspx.
  19. MoEP. (2017d). The waste disposal price list is updated to January 2017 (in Hebrew). Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/subjectsEnv/Waste/recycle/Pages/PrunedBranches.aspx.
  20. MoEP. (2017e). Yard waste (in Hebrew). Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/subjectsEnv/Waste/SolidWaste-Data/Pages/WasteData.aspx.
  21. Nissim, I., Shohat, T., & Inbar, Y. (2005). From dumping to sanitary landfills: Solid waste management in Israel. Waste Management, 25, 323–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tal, U. (2008). Household waste in Israel (in Hebrew). The Knesset Research and Information Center. Available at: https://www.knesset.gov.il/mmm/data/pdf/m02088.pdf. Accessed 25.03.2019.
  23. US EPA. (2014). Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery, Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States Tables and Figures for 2012, February 2014.Google Scholar
  24. US EPA. (2016). Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2014 Fact Sheet: Assessing Trends in Material Generation, Recycling, Composting, Combustion with Energy Recovery and Landfilling in the United States, November 2016.Google Scholar
  25. WFD (Waste Framework Directive). (2008). Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives. Official Journal of the European Union 22.11.2008 N. L312/3.Google Scholar
  26. WI (Waste Incineration Directive). (2000). Directive 2000/76/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 December 2000 on the incineration of waste. Official Journal of the European Union 28.12.2000 N. L332/91.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Di Maria
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ronald L. Mersky
    • 4
    • 3
  • Shira Daskal
    • 5
    • 3
  • Ofira Ayalon
    • 5
    • 3
  • Sadhan K. Ghosh
    • 6
    • 3
  1. 1.LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di IngegneriaUniversity of PerugiaPerugiaItaly
  2. 2.CIMIS ConsortiumPerugiaItaly
  3. 3.Consortium of Researchers in International Collaboration (CRIC)KolkataIndia
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringWidener UniversityChesterUSA
  5. 5.Department of Natural Resources and Environmental ManagementUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael
  6. 6.Jadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations